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Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

Graduate Institute of Environmental Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan
Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Kainan University, Taoyuan 338, Taiwan
Department of Biology, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan
Department of Tourism and Hospitality, TransWorld University, Yunlin 640, Taiwan
Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3290-3310;
Received: 4 October 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA). We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic algorithms; simulated annealing; Taiwan; Taoyuan genetic algorithms; simulated annealing; Taiwan; Taoyuan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fang, W.-T.; Huang, C.-W.; Chou, J.-Y.; Cheng, B.-Y.; Shih, S.-S. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching. Sustainability 2015, 7, 3290-3310.

AMA Style

Fang W-T, Huang C-W, Chou J-Y, Cheng B-Y, Shih S-S. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching. Sustainability. 2015; 7(3):3290-3310.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fang, Wei-Ta, Chin-Wei Huang, Jui-Yu Chou, Bai-You Cheng, and Shang-Shu Shih. 2015. "Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching" Sustainability 7, no. 3: 3290-3310.

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