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Article

A Study of Vertical Structures and Microphysical Characteristics of Different Convective Cloud–Precipitation Types Using Ka-Band Millimeter Wave Radar Measurements

1
Plateau Atmosphere and Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Atmospheric Sciences, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225, China
2
State Key Lab of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(15), 1810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs11151810
Received: 16 June 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Meteorology)
Millimeter wave cloud radar (MMCR) is one of the primary instruments employed to observe cloud–precipitation. With appropriate data processing, measurements of the Doppler spectra, spectral moments, and retrievals can be used to study the physical processes of cloud–precipitation. This study mainly analyzed the vertical structures and microphysical characteristics of different kinds of convective cloud–precipitation in South China during the pre-flood season using a vertical pointing Ka-band MMCR. Four kinds of convection, namely, multi-cell, isolated-cell, convective–stratiform mixed, and warm-cell convection, are discussed herein. The results show that the multi-cell and convective–stratiform mixed convections had similar vertical structures, and experienced nearly the same microphysical processes in terms of particle phase change, particle size distribution, hydrometeor growth, and breaking. A forward pattern was proposed to specifically characterize the vertical structure and provide radar spectra models reflecting the different microphysical and dynamic features and variations in different parts of the cloud body. Vertical air motion played key roles in the microphysical processes of the isolated- and warm-cell convections, and deeply affected the ground rainfall properties. Stronger, thicker, and slanted updrafts caused heavier showers with stronger rain rates and groups of larger raindrops. The microphysical parameters for the warm-cell cloud–precipitation were retrieved from the radar data and further compared with the ground-measured results from a disdrometer. The comparisons indicated that the radar retrievals were basically reliable; however, the radar signal weakening caused biases to some extent, especially for the particle number concentration. Note that the differences in sensitivity and detectable height of the two instruments also contributed to the compared deviation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ka-band millimeter wave radar; cloud–precipitation; vertical structure; microphysical characteristic Ka-band millimeter wave radar; cloud–precipitation; vertical structure; microphysical characteristic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Che, Y. A Study of Vertical Structures and Microphysical Characteristics of Different Convective Cloud–Precipitation Types Using Ka-Band Millimeter Wave Radar Measurements. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs11151810

AMA Style

Zheng J, Zhang P, Liu L, Liu Y, Che Y. A Study of Vertical Structures and Microphysical Characteristics of Different Convective Cloud–Precipitation Types Using Ka-Band Millimeter Wave Radar Measurements. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(15):1810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs11151810

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheng, Jiafeng, Peiwen Zhang, Liping Liu, Yanxia Liu, and Yuzhang Che. 2019. "A Study of Vertical Structures and Microphysical Characteristics of Different Convective Cloud–Precipitation Types Using Ka-Band Millimeter Wave Radar Measurements" Remote Sensing 11, no. 15: 1810. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs11151810

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