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Volume 12, November-2
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Volume 12, October-2

Remote Sens., Volume 12, Issue 21 (November-1 2020) – 206 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The climatological surface solar radiation (SSR) is an important indicator of the solar energy production potential. In the Baltic area, previous studies have indicated lower cloud amounts over seas than over land. Here, we quantify the climatological land–sea contrast of the SSR using two satellite data records of EUMETSAT. Our results show that off-shore locations on average receive higher SSR than inland areas and that the land–sea contrast is strongest during the summer. Furthermore, the land–sea contrast in the summer time SSR exhibits similar behavior in various parts of the Baltic. The annual SSR is 8% higher 20 km off the coastline than 20 km inland. We further find that convective clouds are a key driver of this behavior, as they tend to form over inland areas rather than over the seas during the summer part of the year. View this paper
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Article
Reconstruction of Spatiotemporally Continuous MODIS-Band Reflectance in East and South Asia from 2012 to 2015
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3674; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213674 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 763
Abstract
To reconstruct Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band reflectance with optimal spatiotemporal continuity, three bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models—the Ross-Thick-Li-Sparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) model, Gao model, and adjusted BF model—were used to retrieve MODIS-band reflectance for cloudy MODIS pixels according to different inversion [...] Read more.
To reconstruct Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) band reflectance with optimal spatiotemporal continuity, three bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models—the Ross-Thick-Li-Sparse Reciprocal (RTLSR) model, Gao model, and adjusted BF model—were used to retrieve MODIS-band reflectance for cloudy MODIS pixels according to different inversion conditions with a proposed filling algorithm. Then, a spatiotemporally continuous MODIS-band reflectance dataset for most of Asia with more than 98% spatiotemporal coverage was reconstructed from 2012 to 2015. The validation highlighted an evident improvement in filling cloudy MODIS observations; a reasonable spatial distribution, such as in South Asia and Southeast Asia; and acceptable precision for the filled MODIS pixels, with the root mean square error percentage (RMSE%) at 9.7–9.8% and 12–16% for the Gao and adjusted BF models, respectively. In the course of reconstructing the spatiotemporal continuous MODIS-band reflectance, the differences among the three models were discussed further. For a 16-day period with a stable and unchanged land surface, the RTLSR model, as a basic model, accurately derived land surface reflectance (no more than 10% RMSE% for MCD43C1 V006 band 1) and outperformed the other two models. When the inversion period is sufficiently long (e.g., 108 days, 188 days, 268 days, or a full year), the Gao/adjusted BF model provides better precision than the RTLSR model by considering the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil moisture/NDVI as intermediate variables used to adjust the BRDF parameters in real time. The Gao model is optimal when the inversion period is sufficiently long. Based on combining the RTLSR model and Gao/adjusted BF model, we proposed a filling algorithm to derive a dataset of MODIS-band reflectance with optimal spatiotemporal continuity. Full article
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Article
An Improved Spatiotemporal Data Fusion Method Using Surface Heterogeneity Information Based on ESTARFM
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213673 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 824
Abstract
The use of the spatiotemporal data fusion method as an effective data interpolation method has received extensive attention in remote sensing (RS) academia. The enhanced spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (ESTARFM) is one of the most famous spatiotemporal data fusion methods, [...] Read more.
The use of the spatiotemporal data fusion method as an effective data interpolation method has received extensive attention in remote sensing (RS) academia. The enhanced spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model (ESTARFM) is one of the most famous spatiotemporal data fusion methods, as it is widely used to generate synthetic data. However, the ESTARFM algorithm uses moving windows with a fixed size to get the information around the central pixel, which hampers the efficiency and precision of spatiotemporal data fusion. In this paper, a modified ESTARFM data fusion algorithm that integrated the surface spatial information via a statistical method was developed. In the modified algorithm, the local variance of pixels around the central one was used as an index to adaptively determine the window size. Satellite images from two regions were acquired by employing the ESTARFM and modified algorithm. Results showed that the images predicted using the modified algorithm obtained more details than ESTARFM, as the frequency of pixels with the absolute difference of mean value of six bands’ reflectance between true observed image and predicted between 0 and 0.04 were 78% by ESTARFM and 85% by modified algorithm, respectively. In addition, the efficiency of the modified algorithm improved and the verification test showed the robustness of the modified algorithm. These promising results demonstrated the superiority of the modified algorithm to provide synthetic images compared with ESTARFM. Our research enriches the spatiotemporal data fusion method, and the automatic selection of moving window strategy lays the foundation of automatic processing of spatiotemporal data fusion on a large scale. Full article
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Article
Development of a Seamless Forecast for Solar Radiation Using ANAKLIM++
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213672 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
A novel approach for a blending between nowcasting and numerical weather prediction (NWP) for the surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) for a forecast horizon of 1–5 h is presented in this study. The blending is performed with a software tool called ANAKLIM++ (Adjustment [...] Read more.
A novel approach for a blending between nowcasting and numerical weather prediction (NWP) for the surface incoming shortwave radiation (SIS) for a forecast horizon of 1–5 h is presented in this study. The blending is performed with a software tool called ANAKLIM++ (Adjustment of Assimilation Software for the Reanalysis of Climate Data) which was originally designed for the efficient assimilation of two-dimensional data sets using a variational approach. A nowcasting for SIS was already presented and validated in earlier publications as seamless solar radiation forecast (SESORA). For our blending, two NWP models, namely the ICON (Icosahedral Non-hydrostatic model) from the German weather Service (DWD) and the IFS (Integrated Forecasting System) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), were used. The weights for the input data for ANAKLIM++ vary for every single forecast time and pixel, depending on the error growth of the nowcasting. The results look promising, since the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) of the blending are smaller than the error measures of the nowcasting or NWP models, respectively. Full article
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Article
The Ultra-Short-Term Forecasting of Global Horizonal Irradiance Based on Total Sky Images
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213671 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Solar photovoltaics (PV) has advanced at an unprecedented rate and the global cumulative installed PV capacity is growing exponentially. However, the ability to forecast PV power remains a key technical challenge due to the variability and uncertainty of solar irradiance resulting from the [...] Read more.
Solar photovoltaics (PV) has advanced at an unprecedented rate and the global cumulative installed PV capacity is growing exponentially. However, the ability to forecast PV power remains a key technical challenge due to the variability and uncertainty of solar irradiance resulting from the changes of clouds. Ground-based remote sensing with high temporal and spatial resolution may have potential for solar irradiation forecasting, especially under cloudy conditions. To this end, we established two ultra-short-term forecasting models of global horizonal irradiance (GHI) using Ternary Linear Regression (TLR) and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), respectively, based on the observation of a ground-based sky imager (TSI-880, Total Sky Imager) and a radiometer at a PV plant in Dunhuang, China. Sky images taken every 1 min (minute) were processed to determine the distribution of clouds with different optical depths (thick, thin) for generating a two-dimensional cloud map. To obtain the forecasted cloud map, the Particle Image Velocity (PIV) method was applied to the two consecutive images and the cloud map was advected to the future. Further, different types of cloud fraction combined with clear sky index derived from the GHI of clear sky conditions were used as the inputs of the two forecasting models. Limited validation on 4 partly cloudy days showed that the average relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of the 4 days ranged from 5% to 36% based on the TLR model and ranged from 12% to 32% based on the BPN model. The forecasting performance of the BPN model was better than the TLR model and the forecasting errors increased with the increase in lead time. Full article
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Evolution, Future Trend and Phenology Regularity of Net Primary Productivity of Forests in Northeast China
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213670 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the significant indicators to measure environmental changes; thus, the relevant study of NPP in Northeast China, Asia, is essential to climate changes and ecological sustainable development. Based on the Global Production Efficiency (GLO-PEM) model, this study [...] Read more.
Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the significant indicators to measure environmental changes; thus, the relevant study of NPP in Northeast China, Asia, is essential to climate changes and ecological sustainable development. Based on the Global Production Efficiency (GLO-PEM) model, this study firstly estimated the NPP in Northeast China, from 2001 to 2019, and then analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution, future changing trend and phenology regularity. Over the years, the NPP of different forests type in Northeast China showed a gradual increasing trend. Compared with other different time stages, the high-value NPP (700–1300 gC·m−2·a−1) in Changbai Mountain, from 2017 to 2019, is more widely distributed. For instance, the NPP has an increasing rate of 6.92% compared to the stage of 2011–2015. Additionally, there was a significant advance at the start of the vegetation growth season (SOS), and a lag at the end of the vegetation growth season (EOS), from 2001 to 2019. Thus, the whole growth period of forests in Northeast China became prolonged with the change of phenology. Moreover, analysis on the sustainability of NPP in the future indicates that the reverse direction feature of NPP change will be slightly stronger than the co-directional feature, meaning that about 30.68% of the study area will switch from improvement to degradation. To conclude, these above studies could provide an important reference for the sustainable development of forests in Northeast China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Phenology, and Land Cover and Land Use Change Studies)
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Article
Application of Multiple Geomatic Techniques for Coastline Retreat Analysis: The Case of Gerra Beach (Cantabrian Coast, Spain)
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213669 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 755
Abstract
The beaches of the Cantabrian coast (northern Spain) are exposed to strong winter storms that cause the coastline to recede. In this article, the coastal retreat of the Gerra beach (Cantabria) is analyzed through a diachronic study using the following different geomatic techniques: [...] Read more.
The beaches of the Cantabrian coast (northern Spain) are exposed to strong winter storms that cause the coastline to recede. In this article, the coastal retreat of the Gerra beach (Cantabria) is analyzed through a diachronic study using the following different geomatic techniques: orthophotography of the year 1956; photogrammetric flights from 2001, 2005, 2010, 2014, 2017; Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey from August 2012; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) survey from November 2018; and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) through two dates per year (spring and fall) from April 2012 to April 2020. With the 17 observations of TLS, differences in volume of the beach and the sea cliff are determined during the winter (November–April) and summer (May–October) periods, searching their relationship with the storms in this eight-year period (2012–2020). From the results of this investigation it can be concluded that the retreat of the base of the cliff is insignificant, but this is not the case for the top of the cliff and for the existing beaches in the Cantabrian Sea where the retreat is evident. The retreat of the cliff top line in Gerra beach, between 1956 and 2020 has shown values greater than 40 m. The retreat in other beaches of the Cantabrian Sea, in the same period, has been more than 200 m. With our measurements, investigations carried out on the retreat of the cliffs on the Atlantic coast have been reinforced, where the diversity of the cliff lithology and the aggressive action of the sea (storms) have been responsible for the active erosion on the face cliff. In addition, this research applied geomatic techniques that have appeared commercially during the period (1956–2020), such as aerial photogrammetry, TLS, LiDAR, and UAV and analyzed the results to determine the precision that could be obtained with each method for its application to similar geomorphological structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications in Coastal Environment)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Changes in 3D Building Density with LiDAR and GEOBIA: A City-Level Analysis
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213668 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Understanding how, where, and when a city is expanding can inform better ways to make our cities more resilient, sustainable, and equitable. This paper explores urban volumetry using the Building 3D Density Index (B3DI) in 2001, 2010, 2019, and quantifies changes in the [...] Read more.
Understanding how, where, and when a city is expanding can inform better ways to make our cities more resilient, sustainable, and equitable. This paper explores urban volumetry using the Building 3D Density Index (B3DI) in 2001, 2010, 2019, and quantifies changes in the volume of buildings and urban expansion in Luxembourg City over the last two decades. For this purpose, we use airborne laser scanning (ALS) point cloud (2019) and geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) of aerial orthophotos (2001, 2010) to extract 3D models, footprints of buildings and calculate the volume of individual buildings and B3DI in the frame of a 100 × 100 m grid, at the level of parcels, districts, and city scale. Findings indicate that the B3DI has notably increased in the past 20 years from 0.77 m3/m2 (2001) to 0.9 m3/m2 (2010) to 1.09 m3/m2 (2019). Further, the increase in the volume of buildings between 2001–2019 was +16 million m3. The general trend of changes in the cubic capacity of buildings per resident shows a decrease from 522 m3/resident in 2001, to 460 m3/resident in 2019, which, with the simultaneous appearance of new buildings and fast population growth, represents the dynamic development of the city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Urban Systems Using Remote Sensing)
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Article
Application of the DIC Technique to Remote Control of the Hydraulic Load System
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213667 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
Displacements or deformations of materials or structures are measured with linear variable differential transducers (LVDT), fibre optic sensors, laser sensors, and confocal sensor systems, while strains are measured with electro-resistant tensometers or wire strain gauges. Measurements significantly limited to a point or a [...] Read more.
Displacements or deformations of materials or structures are measured with linear variable differential transducers (LVDT), fibre optic sensors, laser sensors, and confocal sensor systems, while strains are measured with electro-resistant tensometers or wire strain gauges. Measurements significantly limited to a point or a small area are the obvious disadvantage of these measurements. Such disadvantages are eliminated by performing measurements with optical techniques, such as digital image correlation (DIC) or electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI). Many devices applied to optical measurements only record test results and do not cooperate with the system that exerts and controls load. This paper describes the procedure for preparing a test stand involving the Digital Image Correlation system ARAMIS 6M for remote-controlled loading. The existing hydraulic power pack (ZWICK-ROELL) was adapted by installing the modern NI cRIO-9022 controller operating under its own software developed within the LABVIEW system. The application of the DIC techniques to directly control load on the real structure is the unquestionable innovation of the described solution. This led to the elimination of errors caused by the test stand susceptibility and more precise relations between load and displacements/strains which have not been possible using the previous solutions. This project is a synergistic and successful combination of civil engineering, computer science, automatic control engineering and electrical engineering that provides a new solution class. The prepared stand was tested using two two-span, statically non-determinable reinforced concrete beams loaded under different conditions (force or displacement). The method of load application was demonstrated to affect the redistribution of bending moments. The conducted tests confirmed the suitability of the applied technique for the remote controlling and recording of test results. Regardless of the load control method (with force or displacement), convergent results were obtained for the redistribution of bending moments. Force-controlled rotation of the beam section over the support was over 50% greater than rotation of the second beam controlled with an increase in the displacement. Full article
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Article
A New Approach of Ensemble Learning Technique to Resolve the Uncertainties of Paddy Area through Image Classification
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3666; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213666 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 625
Abstract
Remote sensing technology has rendered lots of information in agriculture. It has usually been used to monitor paddy growing ecosystems in the past few decades. However, there are uncertainties in data fusion techniques which can be resolved in image classification on paddy rice. [...] Read more.
Remote sensing technology has rendered lots of information in agriculture. It has usually been used to monitor paddy growing ecosystems in the past few decades. However, there are uncertainties in data fusion techniques which can be resolved in image classification on paddy rice. In this study, a series of learning concepts integrated by a probability progress Fuzzy Dempster-Shafer (FDS) analysis is presented to upgrade various models and different types of image data which is the goal of this study. More specifically, the study utilized the FDS to generate a series of probability models in the classification of the system. In addition, Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Neural Network (NN) approaches are employed into the developed FDS system. Furthermore, two different image types are Satellite Image and Aerial Photo used as the analysis material. The overall classification accuracy has been improved to 97.27%, and the kappa value is 0.93. The overall accuracy of the paddy field image classification for a multi-period of mid-scale satellite images is between 85% and 90%. The overall accuracy of the classification using multi-spectral numerical aerial photos can be between 91% and 95%. The FDS improves the accuracy of the above image classification results. Full article
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Editorial
Special Issue “Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Agriculture and Vegetation”
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3665; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213665 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1266
Abstract
The advent of up-to-date hyperspectral technologies, and their increasing performance both spectrally and spatially, allows for new and exciting studies and practical applications in agriculture (soils and crops) and vegetation mapping and monitoring atregional (satellite platforms) andwithin-field (airplanes, drones and ground-based platforms) scales. [...] Read more.
The advent of up-to-date hyperspectral technologies, and their increasing performance both spectrally and spatially, allows for new and exciting studies and practical applications in agriculture (soils and crops) and vegetation mapping and monitoring atregional (satellite platforms) andwithin-field (airplanes, drones and ground-based platforms) scales. Within this context, the special issue has included eleven international research studies using different hyperspectral datasets (from the Visible to the Shortwave Infrared spectral region) for agricultural soil, crop and vegetation modelling, mapping, and monitoring. Different classification methods (Support Vector Machine, Random Forest, Artificial Neural Network, Decision Tree) and crop canopy/leaf biophysical parameters (e.g., chlorophyll content) estimation methods (partial least squares and multiple linear regressions) have been evaluated. Further, drone-based hyperspectral mapping by combining bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model for multi-angle remote sensing and object-oriented classification methods are also examined. A review article on the recent advances of hyperspectral imaging technology and applications in agriculture is also included in this issue. The special issue is intended to help researchers and farmers involved in precision agriculture technology and practices to a better comprehension of strengths and limitations of the application of hyperspectral measurements for agriculture and vegetation monitoring. The studies published herein can be used by the agriculture and vegetation research and management communities to improve the characterization and evaluation of biophysical variables and processes, as well as for a more accurate prediction of plant nutrient using existing and forthcoming hyperspectral remote sensing technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Agriculture and Vegetation)
Article
Deformations Prior to the Brumadinho Dam Collapse Revealed by Sentinel-1 InSAR Data Using SBAS and PSI Techniques
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213664 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1328
Abstract
Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) has been used to monitor surface deformations in open pit mines and tailings dams. In this paper, ground deformations have been detected on the area of tailings Dam-I at the Córrego do Feijão Mine (Brumadinho, Brazil) before its catastrophic [...] Read more.
Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) has been used to monitor surface deformations in open pit mines and tailings dams. In this paper, ground deformations have been detected on the area of tailings Dam-I at the Córrego do Feijão Mine (Brumadinho, Brazil) before its catastrophic failure occurred on 25 January 2019. Two techniques optimized for different scattering models, SBAS (Small BAseline Subset) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry), were used to perform the analysis based on 26 Sentinel-1B images in Interferometric Wide Swath (IW) mode, which were acquired on descending orbits from 03 March 2018 to 22 January 2019. A WorldDEM Digital Surface Model (DSM) product was used to remove the topographic phase component. The results provided by both techniques showed a synoptic and informative view of the deformation process affecting the study area, with the detection of persistent trends of deformation on the crest, middle, and bottom sectors of the dam face until its collapse, as well as the settlements on the tailings. It is worth noting the detection of an acceleration in the displacement time-series for a short period near the failure. The maximum accumulated displacements detected along the downstream slope face were −39 mm (SBAS) and −48 mm (PSI). It is reasonable to consider that Sentinel-1 would provide decision makers with complementary motion information to the in situ monitoring system for risk assessment and for a better understanding of the ongoing instability phenomena affecting the tailings dam. Full article
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Article
Automatic High-Resolution Land Cover Production in Madagascar Using Sentinel-2 Time Series, Tile-Based Image Classification and Google Earth Engine
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3663; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213663 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1400
Abstract
Madagascar, one of Earth’s biodiversity hotpots, is characterized by heterogeneous landscapes and huge land cover change. To date, fine, reliable and timely land cover information is scarce in Madagascar. However, mapping high-resolution land cover map in the tropics has been challenging due to [...] Read more.
Madagascar, one of Earth’s biodiversity hotpots, is characterized by heterogeneous landscapes and huge land cover change. To date, fine, reliable and timely land cover information is scarce in Madagascar. However, mapping high-resolution land cover map in the tropics has been challenging due to limitations associated with heterogeneous landscapes, the volume of satellite data used, and the design of methodology. In this study, we proposed an automatic approach in which the tile-based model was used on each tile (defining an extent of 1° × 1° as a tile) for mapping land cover in Madagascar. We combined spectral-temporal, textural and topographical features derived from all available Sentinel-2 observations (i.e., 11,083 images) on Google Earth Engine (GEE). We generated a 10-m land cover map for Madagascar, with an overall accuracy of 89.2% based on independent validation samples obtained from a field survey and visual interpretation of very high-resolution (0.5–5 m) images. Compared with the conventional approach (i.e., the overall model used in the entire study area), our method enables reduce the misclassifications between several land cover types, including impervious land, grassland and wetland. The proposed approach demonstrates a great potential for mapping land cover in other tropical or subtropical regions. Full article
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Article
Analysing Urban Development Patterns in a Conflict Zone: A Case Study of Kabul
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213662 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
A large part of the population in low-income countries (LICs) lives in fragile and conflict-affected states. Many cities in these states show high growth dynamics, but little is known about the relation of conflicts and urban growth. In Afghanistan, the Taliban regime, which [...] Read more.
A large part of the population in low-income countries (LICs) lives in fragile and conflict-affected states. Many cities in these states show high growth dynamics, but little is known about the relation of conflicts and urban growth. In Afghanistan, the Taliban regime, which lasted from 1996 to 2001, caused large scale displacement of the population. People from Afghanistan migrated to neighboring countries like Iran and Pakistan, and all developments came to a halt. After the US invasion in October 2001, all the major cities in Afghanistan experienced significant population growth, in particular, driven by the influx of internally displaced persons. Maximum pressure of this influx was felt by the capital city, Kabul. This rapid urbanization, combined with very limited capacity of local authorities to deal with this growth, led to unplanned urbanization and challenges for urban planning and management. This study analyses the patterns of growth between 2001 and 2017, and the factors influencing the growth in the city of Kabul with the help of high-resolution Earth Observation-based data (EO) and spatial logistic regression modelling. We analyze settlement patterns by extracting image features from high-resolution images (aerial photographs of 2017) and terrain features as input to a random forest classifier. The urban growth is analyzed using an available built-up map (extracted from IKONOS images for the year 2001). Results indicate that unplanned settlements have grown 4.5 times during this period, whereas planned settlements have grown only 1.25 times. The unplanned settlements expanded mostly towards the west and north west parts of the city, and the growth of planned settlements happened mainly in the central and eastern parts of the city. Population density and the locations of military bases are the most important factors that influence the growth, of both planned and unplanned settlements. The growth of unplanned settlement occurs predominantly in areas of steeper slopes on the hillside, while planned settlements are on gentle slopes and closer to the institutional areas (central and eastern parts of the city). We conclude that security and availability of infrastructure were the main drivers of growth for planned settlements, whereas unplanned growth, mainly on hillsides, was driven by the availability of land with poor infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing-Based Urban Planning Indicators)
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Article
Chlorophyll-a Variability during Upwelling Events in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea and in the Curonian Lagoon from Satellite Observations
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3661; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213661 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Based on the analysis of multispectral satellite data, this work demonstrates the influence of coastal upwelling on the variability of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in the south-eastern Baltic (SEB) Sea and in the Curonian Lagoon. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) data acquired [...] Read more.
Based on the analysis of multispectral satellite data, this work demonstrates the influence of coastal upwelling on the variability of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in the south-eastern Baltic (SEB) Sea and in the Curonian Lagoon. The analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) data acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua/Terra satellites, together with Chl-a maps from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard Envisat, shows a significant decrease of up to 40–50% in Chl-a concentration in the upwelling zone. This results from the offshore Ekman transport of more productive surface waters, which are replaced by cold and less-productive waters from deeper layers. Due to an active interaction between the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Lagoon which are connected through the Klaipeda Strait, coastal upwelling in the SEB also influences the hydrobiological conditions of the adjacent lagoon. During upwelling inflows, SST drops by approximately 2–8 °C, while Chl-a concentration becomes 2–4 times lower than in pre-upwelling conditions. The joint analysis of remotely sensed Chl-a and SST data reveals that the upwelling-driven reduction in Chl-a concentration leads to the temporary improvement of water quality in terms of Chl-a in the coastal zone and in the hyper-eutrophic Curonian Lagoon. This study demonstrates the benefits of multi-spectral satellite data for upscaling coastal processes and monitoring the environmental status of the Baltic Sea and its largest estuarine lagoon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Baltic Sea Remote Sensing)
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Article
Fuel Type Classification Using Airborne Laser Scanning and Sentinel 2 Data in Mediterranean Forest Affected by Wildfires
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213660 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
Mediterranean forests are recurrently affected by fire. The recurrence of fire in such environments and the number and severity of previous fire events are directly related to fire risk. Fuel type classification is crucial for estimating ignition and fire propagation for sustainable forest [...] Read more.
Mediterranean forests are recurrently affected by fire. The recurrence of fire in such environments and the number and severity of previous fire events are directly related to fire risk. Fuel type classification is crucial for estimating ignition and fire propagation for sustainable forest management of these wildfire prone environments. The aim of this study is to classify fuel types according to Prometheus classification using low-density Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) data, Sentinel 2 data, and 136 field plots used as ground-truth. The study encompassed three different Mediterranean forests dominated by pines (Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster y P. nigra), oaks (Quercus ilex) and quercus (Q. faginea) in areas affected by wildfires in 1994 and their surroundings. Two metric selection approaches and two non-parametric classification methods with variants were compared to classify fuel types. The best-fitted classification model was obtained using Support Vector Machine method with radial kernel. The model includes three ALS and one Sentinel-2 metrics: the 25th percentile of returns height, the percentage of all returns above mean, rumple structural diversity index and NDVI. The overall accuracy of the model after validation was 59%. The combination of data from active and passive remote sensing sensors as well as the use of adapted structural diversity indices derived from ALS data improved accuracy classification. This approach demonstrates its value for mapping fuel type spatial patterns at a regional scale under different heterogeneous and topographically complex Mediterranean forests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper Special Issue on Forest Remote Sensing)
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Article
A Deep Learning-Based Method for Quantifying and Mapping the Grain Size on Pebble Beaches
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3659; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213659 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1559
Abstract
This article proposes a new methodological approach to measure and map the size of coarse clasts on a land surface from photographs. This method is based on the use of the Mask Regional Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) deep learning algorithm, which allows the [...] Read more.
This article proposes a new methodological approach to measure and map the size of coarse clasts on a land surface from photographs. This method is based on the use of the Mask Regional Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) deep learning algorithm, which allows the instance segmentation of objects after an initial training on manually labeled data. The algorithm is capable of identifying and classifying objects present in an image at the pixel scale, without human intervention, in a matter of seconds. This work demonstrates that it is possible to train the model to detect non-overlapping coarse sediments on scaled images, in order to extract their individual size and morphological characteristics with high efficiency (R2 = 0.98; Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 3.9 mm). It is then possible to measure element size profiles over a sedimentary body, as it was done on the pebble beach of Etretat (Normandy, France) in order to monitor the granulometric spatial variability before and after a storm. Applied at a larger scale using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) derived ortho-images, the method allows the accurate characterization and high-resolution mapping of the surface coarse sediment size, as it was performed on the two pebble beaches of Etretat (D50 = 5.99 cm) and Hautot-sur-Mer (D50 = 7.44 cm) (Normandy, France). Validation results show a very satisfying overall representativity (R2 = 0.45 and 0.75; RMSE = 6.8 mm and 9.3 mm at Etretat and Hautot-sur-Mer, respectively), while the method remains fast, easy to apply and low-cost, although the method remains limited by the image resolution (objects need to be longer than 4 cm), and could still be improved in several ways, for instance by adding more manually labeled data to the training dataset, and by considering more accurate methods than the ellipse fitting for measuring the particle sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Remote Sensing in Coastal and Hydraulic Engineering)
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Article
Coastal Dam Inundation Assessment for the Yellow River Delta: Measurements, Analysis and Scenario
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213658 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Coastal dams along the Yellow River Delta are built to prevent seawater intrusion. However, land subsidence caused by significant oil, gas and brine extraction, as well as sediment compaction, could exacerbate the flooding effects of sea-level rise and storm surge. In order to [...] Read more.
Coastal dams along the Yellow River Delta are built to prevent seawater intrusion. However, land subsidence caused by significant oil, gas and brine extraction, as well as sediment compaction, could exacerbate the flooding effects of sea-level rise and storm surge. In order to evaluate the coastal dam vulnerability, we combined unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with small baseline subsets (SBAS) interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) results to generate an accurate coastal dam digital elevation model (DEM) over the next 10, 30 and 80 years. Sea-level simulation was derived from the relative sea-level rise scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and local long-term tide gauge records. Assuming that the current rate of dam vertical deformation and sea-level rise are linear, we then generated different inundation scenarios by the superposition of DEMs and sea-levels at different periods by way of a bathtub model. We found that the overtopping event would likely occur around Year 2050, and the northern part of the dam would lose its protective capability almost entirely by the end of this century. This article provides an alternative cost-effective method for the detection, extraction and monitoring of coastal artificial infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dam Stability Monitoring with Satellite Geodesy)
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Article
Learning-Based Hyperspectral Imagery Compression through Generative Neural Networks
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213657 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 733
Abstract
Hyperspectral images (HSIs), which obtain abundant spectral information for narrow spectral bands (no wider than 10 nm), have greatly improved our ability to qualitatively and quantitatively sense the Earth. Since HSIs are collected by high-resolution instruments over a very large number of wavelengths, [...] Read more.
Hyperspectral images (HSIs), which obtain abundant spectral information for narrow spectral bands (no wider than 10 nm), have greatly improved our ability to qualitatively and quantitatively sense the Earth. Since HSIs are collected by high-resolution instruments over a very large number of wavelengths, the data generated by such sensors is enormous, and the amount of data continues to grow, HSI compression technique will play more crucial role in this trend. The classical method for HSI compression is through compression and reconstruction methods such as three-dimensional wavelet-based techniques or the principle component analysis (PCA) transform. In this paper, we provide an alternative approach for HSI compression via a generative neural network (GNN), which learns the probability distribution of the real data from a random latent code. This is achieved by defining a family of densities and finding the one minimizing the distance between this family and the real data distribution. Then, the well-trained neural network is a representation of the HSI, and the compression ratio is determined by the complexity of the GNN. Moreover, the latent code can be encrypted by embedding a digit with a random distribution, which makes the code confidential. Experimental examples are presented to demonstrate the potential of the GNN to solve image compression problems in the field of HSI. Compared with other algorithms, it has better performance at high compression ratio, and there is still much room left for improvements along with the fast development of deep-learning techniques. Full article
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Article
Model Selection in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Application to Aerosol Retrieval from DSCOVR/EPIC. Part 2: Numerical Analysis
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3656; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213656 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 823
Abstract
An algorithm for retrieving aerosol parameters by taking into account the uncertainty in aerosol model selection is applied to the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height from synthetic measurements from the EPIC sensor onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory. The [...] Read more.
An algorithm for retrieving aerosol parameters by taking into account the uncertainty in aerosol model selection is applied to the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol layer height from synthetic measurements from the EPIC sensor onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory. The synthetic measurements are generated using aerosol models derived from AERONET measurements at different sites, while other commonly used aerosol models, such as OPAC, GOCART, OMI, and MODIS databases are used in the retrieval. The numerical analysis is focused on the estimation of retrieval errors when the true aerosol model is unknown. We found that the best aerosol model is the one with a value of the asymmetry parameter and an angular variation of the phase function around the viewing direction that is close to the values corresponding to the reference aerosol model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Remote Sensing Inversion)
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Article
Wavelet Scattering Network-Based Machine Learning for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging: Application in Pipeline Identification
by and
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3655; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213655 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Automatic and efficient ground penetrating radar (GPR) data analysis remains a bottleneck, especially restricting applications in real-time monitoring systems. Deep learning approaches have good practice in automatic object identification, but their intensive data requirement has reduced their applicability. This paper developed a machine [...] Read more.
Automatic and efficient ground penetrating radar (GPR) data analysis remains a bottleneck, especially restricting applications in real-time monitoring systems. Deep learning approaches have good practice in automatic object identification, but their intensive data requirement has reduced their applicability. This paper developed a machine learning framework based on wavelet scattering networks to analyze GPR data for subsurface pipeline identification. Wavelet scattering network is functionally equivalent to convolutional neural networks, and its null-parameter property is intended for non-intensive datasets. A double-channel framework is designed with wavelet scattering networks followed by support vector machines to determine the existence of pipelines on vertical and horizontal traces separately. Classification accuracy rates arrive around 98% and 95% for datasets without and with noises, respectively, as well as 97% for considering surface roughness. Pipeline locations and diameters are convenient to determine from the reconstructed profiles of both simulated and practical GPR signals. However, the results of 5 cm pipelines are sensitive to noises. Nonetheless, the developed machine learning approach presents promising applicability in subsurface pipeline identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Techniques for Ground Penetrating Radar Imaging)
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Article
Sea Surface Temperature and High Water Temperature Occurrence Prediction Using a Long Short-Term Memory Model
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213654 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
Recent global warming has been accompanied by high water temperatures (HWTs) in coastal areas of Korea, resulting in huge economic losses in the marine fishery industry due to disease outbreaks in aquaculture. To mitigate these losses, it is necessary to predict such outbreaks [...] Read more.
Recent global warming has been accompanied by high water temperatures (HWTs) in coastal areas of Korea, resulting in huge economic losses in the marine fishery industry due to disease outbreaks in aquaculture. To mitigate these losses, it is necessary to predict such outbreaks to prevent or respond to them as early as possible. In the present study, we propose an HWT prediction method that applies sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and deep-learning technology in a long short-term memory (LSTM) model based on a recurrent neural network (RNN). The LSTM model is used to predict time series data for the target areas, including the coastal area from Goheung to Yeosu, Jeollanam-do, Korea, which has experienced frequent HWT occurrences in recent years. To evaluate the performance of the SST prediction model, we compared and analyzed the results of an existing SST prediction model for the SST data, and additional external meteorological data. The proposed model outperformed the existing model in predicting SSTs and HWTs. Although the performance of the proposed model decreased as the prediction interval increased, it consistently showed better performance than the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) prediction model. Therefore, the method proposed in this study may be applied to prevent future damage to the aquaculture industry. Full article
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Article
Early ICESat-2 on-orbit Geolocation Validation Using Ground-Based Corner Cube Retro-Reflectors
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3653; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213653 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), an Earth-observing laser altimetry mission, is currently providing global elevation measurements. Geolocation validation confirms the altimeter’s ability to accurately position the measurement on the surface of the Earth and provides insight into the fidelity of [...] Read more.
The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2), an Earth-observing laser altimetry mission, is currently providing global elevation measurements. Geolocation validation confirms the altimeter’s ability to accurately position the measurement on the surface of the Earth and provides insight into the fidelity of the geolocation determination process. Surfaces well characterized by independent methods are well suited to provide a measure of the ICESat-2 geolocation accuracy through statistical comparison. This study compares airborne lidar data with the ICESat-2 along-track geolocated photon data product to determine the horizontal geolocation accuracy by minimizing the vertical residuals between datasets. At the same location arrays of corner cube retro-reflectors (CCRs) provide unique signal signatures back to the satellite from their known positions to give a deterministic solution of the laser footprint diameter and the geolocation accuracy for those cases where two or more CCRs were illuminated within one ICESat-2 transect. This passive method for diameter recovery and geolocation accuracy assessment is implemented at two locations: White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in New Mexico and along the 88°S latitude line in Antarctica. This early on-orbit study provides results as a proof of concept for this passive validation technique. For the cases studied the diameter value ranged from 10.6 to 12 m. The variability is attributed to the statistical nature of photon-counting lidar technology and potentially, variations in the atmospheric conditions that impact signal transmission. The geolocation accuracy results from the CCR technique and airborne lidar comparisons are within the mission requirement of 6.5 m. Full article
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Article
Uncertainty and Overfitting in Fluvial Landform Classification Using Laser Scanned Data and Machine Learning: A Comparison of Pixel and Object-Based Approaches
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3652; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213652 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Floodplains are valuable scenes of water management and nature conservation. A better understanding of their geomorphological characteristic helps to understand the main processes involved. We performed a classification of floodplain forms in a naturally developed area in Hungary using a Digital Terrain Model [...] Read more.
Floodplains are valuable scenes of water management and nature conservation. A better understanding of their geomorphological characteristic helps to understand the main processes involved. We performed a classification of floodplain forms in a naturally developed area in Hungary using a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of aerial laser scanning. We derived 60 geomorphometric variables from the DTM and prepared a geomorphological map of 265 forms (crevasse channels, point bars, swales, levees). Random Forest classification was conducted with Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) on the objects (mean pixel values by forms) and on the pixels of the variables. We also evaluated the classification probabilities (CP), the spatial uncertainties (SU), and the overfitting in the function of the number of the variables. We found that the object-based method had a better performance (95%) than the pixel-based method (78%). RFE helped to identify the most important 13–20 variables, maintaining the high model performance and reducing the overfitting. However, CP and SU were not efficient measures of classification accuracy as they were not in accordance with the class level accuracy metric. Our results help to understand classification results and the specific limits of laser scanned DTMs. This methodology can be useful in geomorphologic mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Geomorphological Mapping)
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Article
Change Points Detected in Decadal and Seasonal Trends of Outlet Glacier Terminus Positions across West Greenland
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213651 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
We investigated the change in terminus position between 1985 and 2015 of 17 marine-terminating glaciers that drain into Disko and Uummannaq Bays, West Greenland, by manually digitizing over 5000 individual frontal positions from over 1200 Landsat images. We find that 15 of 17 [...] Read more.
We investigated the change in terminus position between 1985 and 2015 of 17 marine-terminating glaciers that drain into Disko and Uummannaq Bays, West Greenland, by manually digitizing over 5000 individual frontal positions from over 1200 Landsat images. We find that 15 of 17 glacier termini retreated over the study period, with ~80% of this retreat occurring since 2000. Increased frequency of Landsat observations since 2000 allowed for further investigation of the seasonal variability in terminus position. We identified 10 actively retreating glaciers based on a significant positive relationship between glaciers with cumulative retreat >300 m since 2000 and their average annual amplitude (seasonal range) in terminus position. Finally, using the Detecting Breakpoints and Estimating Segments in Trend (DBEST) program, we investigated whether the 2000–2015 trends in terminus position were explained by the occurrence of change points (significant trend transitions). Based on the change point analysis, we found that nine of 10 glaciers identified as actively retreating also underwent two or three periods of change, during which their terminus positions were characterized by increases in cumulative retreat. Previous literature suggests potential relationships between our identified change dates with anomalous ocean conditions, such as low sea ice concentration and high sea surface temperatures, and our change durations with individual fjord geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing in Glaciology)
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Article
Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Global Precipitation Products over the Largest Agriculture Region in Pakistan
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3650; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213650 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
Spatial and temporal precipitation data acquisition is highly important for hydro-meteorological applications. Gridded precipitation products (GPPs) offer an opportunity to estimate precipitation at different time and resolution. Though, the products have numerous discrepancies that need to be evaluated against in-situ records. The present [...] Read more.
Spatial and temporal precipitation data acquisition is highly important for hydro-meteorological applications. Gridded precipitation products (GPPs) offer an opportunity to estimate precipitation at different time and resolution. Though, the products have numerous discrepancies that need to be evaluated against in-situ records. The present study is the first of its kind to highlight the performance evaluation of gauge based (GB) and satellite based (SB) GPPs at annual, winter, and summer monsoon scale by using multiple statistical approach during the period of 1979–2017 and 2003–2017, respectively. The result revealed that the temporal magnitude of all the GPPs was different and deviate up to 100–200 mm with overall spatial pattern of underestimation (GB product) and overestimation (SB product) from north to south gradient. The degree of accuracy of GB products with observed precipitation decreases with the increase in the magnitude of precipitation and vice versa for SB precipitation products. Furthermore, the observed precipitation revealed the positive trend with multiple turning points during the period 1979–2005. However, the gentle increase with no obvious break point has been detected during the period of 2005–2017. The large inter-annual variability and trends slope of the reference data series were well captured by Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products and outperformed the relative GPPs in terms of higher R2 values of ≥ 0.90 and lower values of estimated RME ≤ 25% at annual and summer monsoon season. However, Climate Research Unit (CRU) performed better during winter estimates as compared with in-situ records. In view of significant error and discrepancies, regional correction factors for each GPPs were introduced that can be useful for future concerned projects over the study region. The study highlights the importance of evaluation by the careful selection of potential GPPs for the future hydro-climate studies over the similar regions like Punjab Province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Precipitation: Part II)
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Article
Estimates of Forest Canopy Height Using a Combination of ICESat-2/ATLAS Data and Stereo-Photogrammetry
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3649; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213649 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 958
Abstract
Forest canopy height is an indispensable forest vertical structure parameter for understanding the carbon cycle and forest ecosystem services. A variety of studies based on spaceborne Lidar, such as ICESat, ICESat-2 and airborne Lidar, were conducted to estimate forest canopy height at multiple [...] Read more.
Forest canopy height is an indispensable forest vertical structure parameter for understanding the carbon cycle and forest ecosystem services. A variety of studies based on spaceborne Lidar, such as ICESat, ICESat-2 and airborne Lidar, were conducted to estimate forest canopy height at multiple scales. However, while a few studies have been conducted based on ICESat-2 simulated data from airborne Lidar data, few studies have analyzed ATL08 and ATL03 products derived from the ATLAS sensor onboard ICESat-2 for regional vegetation canopy height mapping. It is necessary and promising to explore how data obtained by ICESat-2 can be applied to estimate forest canopy height. This study proposes a new means to estimate forest canopy height, defined as the mean height of trees within a given forest area, using a combination of ICESat-2 ATL08 and ATL03 data and ZY-3 satellite stereo images. Five procedures were used to estimate the forest canopy height of the city of Nanning in China: (1) Processing ground photons in a 30 m × 30 m grid; (2) Extracting a digital surface model (DSM) using ZY-3 stereo images; (3) Calculating a discontinuous canopy height model (CHM) dataset; (4) Validating the DSM and ground photon height using GEDI data; (5) Estimating the regional wall-to-wall forest canopy height product based on the backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model and Landsat 8 vegetation indices and independent accuracy assessments with field measured plots. The validation shows a root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.34 m to 3.47 m and a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.51. The new method shows promise and can be used for large-scale forest canopy height mapping at various resolutions or in combination with other data, such as SAR images. Finally, this study analyzes resolutions and how to filter effective data when ATL08 data are directly used to generate regional or global vegetation height products, which will be the focus of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in LiDAR Remote Sensing for Forestry and Ecology)
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Article
Improving Stage–Discharge Relation in The Mekong River Estuary by Remotely Sensed Long-Period Ocean Tides
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3648; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213648 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 612
Abstract
Ocean tidal backwater reshapes the stage–discharge relation in the fluvial-to-marine transition zone at estuaries, rendering the cautious use of these data for hydrological studies. While a qualitative explanation is traditionally provided by examining a scatter plot of water discharge against water level, a [...] Read more.
Ocean tidal backwater reshapes the stage–discharge relation in the fluvial-to-marine transition zone at estuaries, rendering the cautious use of these data for hydrological studies. While a qualitative explanation is traditionally provided by examining a scatter plot of water discharge against water level, a quantitative assessment of long-period ocean tidal effect on the stage–discharge relation has been rarely investigated. This study analyzes the relationship among water level, water discharge, and ocean tidal height via their standardized forms in the Mekong Delta. We found that semiannual and annual components of ocean tides contribute significantly to the discrepancy between standardized water level and standardized water discharge time series. This reveals that the long-period ocean tides are the significant factors influencing the stage–discharge relation in the river delta, implying a potential of improving the relation as long as proper long-period ocean tidal components are taken into consideration. By isolating the short-period signals (i.e., less than 15 days) from land surface hydrology and ocean tides, better consistent stage–discharge relations are obtained, in terms of improving the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) from ~0.4 to ~0.8 and from ~0.6 to ~0.9 for the stations closest to the estuary and at the Mekong Delta entrance, respectively. By incorporating the long-period ocean tidal height time series generated from a remotely sensed global ocean tide model into the stage–discharge relation, further refined stage–discharge relations are obtained with the PCC higher than 0.9 for all employed stations, suggesting the improvement of daily averaged water level and water discharge while ignoring the short-period intratidal variability. The remotely sensed global ocean tide model, OSU12, which contains annual and semiannual ocean tide components, is capable of generating accurate tidal height time series necessary for the partial recovery of the stage–discharge relation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Waters Monitoring Using Remote Sensing Technology)
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Article
Oil Spill Detection and Mapping: A 50-Year Bibliometric Analysis
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3647; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213647 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 986
Abstract
Oil spill detection and mapping (OSPM) is an extremely relevant issue from a scientific point of view due to the environmental impact on coastal and marine ecosystems. In this study, we present a new approach to assess scientific literature for the past 50 [...] Read more.
Oil spill detection and mapping (OSPM) is an extremely relevant issue from a scientific point of view due to the environmental impact on coastal and marine ecosystems. In this study, we present a new approach to assess scientific literature for the past 50 years. In this sense, our study aims to perform a bibliometric and network analysis using a literature review on the application of OSPM to assess researchers and trends in this field of science. In methodological terms we used the Scopus base to search for articles in the literature, then we used bibliometric tools to access information and reveal quantifying patterns in this field of literature. Our results suggest that the detection of oil in the sea has undergone a great evolution in the last decades and there is a strong relationship between the technological evolution aimed at detection with the improvement of remote sensing data acquisition methods. The most relevant contributions in this field of science involved countries such as China, the United States, and Canada. We revealed aspects of great importance and interest in OSPM literature using a bibliometric and network approach to give a clear overview of this field’s research trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applications in Ocean Observation)
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Article
A More Reliable Orbit Initialization Method for LEO Precise Orbit Determination Using GNSS
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3646; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213646 - 06 Nov 2020
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Precise orbit determination (POD) using GNSS has been rapidly developed and is the mainstream technology for the navigation of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. The initialization of orbit parameters is a key prerequisite for LEO POD processing. For a LEO satellite equipped with [...] Read more.
Precise orbit determination (POD) using GNSS has been rapidly developed and is the mainstream technology for the navigation of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. The initialization of orbit parameters is a key prerequisite for LEO POD processing. For a LEO satellite equipped with a GNSS receiver, sufficient discrete kinematic positions can be obtained easily by processing space-borne GNSS data, and its orbit parameters can thus be estimated directly in iterative manner. This method of direct iterative estimation is called as the direct approach, which is generally considered highly reliable, but in practical applications it has risk of failure. Stability analyses demonstrate that the direct approach is sensitive to oversized errors in the starting velocity vector at the reference time, which may lead to large errors in design matrix because the reference orbit may be significantly distorted, and eventually cause the divergence of the orbit parameter estimation. In view of this, a more reliable method, termed the progressive approach, is presented in this paper. Instead of estimating the orbit parameters directly, it first fits the discrete kinematic positions to a reference ephemeris in the form of the GNSS broadcast ephemeris, which construct a reference orbit that is smooth and close to the true orbit. Based on the reference orbit, the starting orbit parameters are computed in sufficient accuracy, and then the final orbit parameters are estimated with a high accuracy by using discrete kinematic positions as measurements. The stability analyses show that the design matrix errors are reduced in the progressive approach, which would assure more robust orbit parameter estimation than the direct estimation approach. Various orbit initialization experiments are performed on the KOMPSAT-5 and FY3C satellites. The results have fully verified the high reliability of the proposed progressive approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GNSS Data Processing and Navigation)
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Article
Mapping the Population Density in Mainland China Using NPP/VIIRS and Points-Of-Interest Data Based on a Random Forests Model
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(21), 3645; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs12213645 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Understanding the spatial distribution of populations at a finer spatial scale has important value for many applications, such as disaster risk rescue operations, business decision-making, and regional planning. In this study, a random forest (RF)-based population density mapping method was proposed in order [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatial distribution of populations at a finer spatial scale has important value for many applications, such as disaster risk rescue operations, business decision-making, and regional planning. In this study, a random forest (RF)-based population density mapping method was proposed in order to generate high-precision population density data with a 100 m × 100 m grid in mainland China in 2015 (hereafter referred to as ‘Popi’). Besides the commonly used elevation, slope, Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), land use/land cover, roads, and National Polar Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP/VIIRS), 16,101,762 records of points of interest (POIs) and 2867 county-level censuses were used in order to develop the model. Furthermore, 28,505 township-level censuses (74% of the total number of townships) were collected in order to evaluate the accuracy of the Popi product. The results showed that the utilization of multi-source data (especially the combination of POIs and NPP/VIIRS data) can effectively improve the accuracy of population mapping at a finer scale. The feature importances of the POIs and NPP/VIIRS are 0.49 and 0.14, respectively, which are higher values than those obtained for other natural factors. Compared with the Worldpop population dataset, the Popi data exhibited a higher accuracy. The number of accurately-estimated townships was 19,300 (67.7%) in the Popi product and 16,237 (56.9%) in the Worldpop product. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) were 14,839 and 7218, respectively, for Popi, and 18,014 and 8572, respectively, for Worldpop. The research method in this paper could provide a reference for the spatialization of other socioeconomic data (such as GDP). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Application to Population Mapping)
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