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Article

Estimating the Fractional Cycle Biases for GPS Triple-Frequency Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution Based on IGS Ultra-Rapid Predicted Orbits

1
School of Geomatics and Urban Spatial Information, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 1 Zhanlanguan Road, Beijing 100044, China
2
GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
3
54th Research Institution, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, 589 Zhongshanxi Road, Shijiazhuang 050000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elisa Pinat
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(16), 3164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13163164
Received: 29 June 2021 / Revised: 1 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 10 August 2021
We investigate the estimation of the fractional cycle biases (FCBs) for GPS triple-frequency uncombined precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR) based on the IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU) orbits. The impact of the IGU orbit errors on the performance of GPS triple-frequency PPP AR is also assessed. The extra-wide-lane (EWL), wide-lane (WL) and narrow-lane (NL) FCBs are generated with the single difference (SD) between satellites model using the global reference stations based on the IGU orbits. For comparison purposes, the EWL, WL and NL FCBs based on the IGS final precise (IGF) orbits are estimated. Each of the EWL, WL and NL FCBs based on IGF and IGU orbits are converted to the uncombined FCBs to implement the static and kinematic triple-frequency PPP AR. Due to the short wavelengths of NL ambiguities, the IGU orbit errors significantly impact the precision and stability of NL FCBs. An average STD of 0.033 cycles is achieved for the NL FCBs based on IGF orbits, while the value of the NL FCBs based on IGU orbits is 0.133 cycles. In contrast, the EWL and WL FCBs generated based on IGU orbits have comparable precision and stability to those generated based on IGF orbits. The use of IGU orbits results in an increased time-to-first-fix (TTFF) and lower fixing rates compared to the use of IGF orbits. Average TTFFs of 23.3 min (static) and 31.1 min (kinematic) and fixing rates of 98.1% (static) and 97.4% (kinematic) are achieved for the triple-frequency PPP AR based on IGF orbits. The average TTFFs increase to 27.0 min (static) and 37.9 min (kinematic) with fixing rates of 97.0% (static) and 96.3% (kinematic) based on the IGU orbits. The convergence times and positioning accuracy of PPP and PPP AR based on IGU orbits are slightly worse than those based on IGF orbits. Additionally, limited by the number of satellites transmitting three frequency signals, the introduction of the third frequency, L5, has a marginal impact on the performance of PPP and PPP AR. The GPS triple-frequency PPP AR performance is expected to improve with the deployment of new-generation satellites capable of transmitting the L5 signal. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS triple-frequency; fractional cycle biases (FCBs); uncombined precise point positioning (PPP); ambiguity resolution (AR); IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU) orbits GPS triple-frequency; fractional cycle biases (FCBs); uncombined precise point positioning (PPP); ambiguity resolution (AR); IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU) orbits
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qu, L.; Zhang, P.; Jing, C.; Du, M.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Q.; Li, J. Estimating the Fractional Cycle Biases for GPS Triple-Frequency Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution Based on IGS Ultra-Rapid Predicted Orbits. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3164. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13163164

AMA Style

Qu L, Zhang P, Jing C, Du M, Wang J, Zhao Q, Li J. Estimating the Fractional Cycle Biases for GPS Triple-Frequency Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution Based on IGS Ultra-Rapid Predicted Orbits. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(16):3164. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13163164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qu, Lizhong, Pu Zhang, Changfeng Jing, Mingyi Du, Jian Wang, Qile Zhao, and Juanjuan Li. 2021. "Estimating the Fractional Cycle Biases for GPS Triple-Frequency Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution Based on IGS Ultra-Rapid Predicted Orbits" Remote Sensing 13, no. 16: 3164. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13163164

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