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Article

The Improved A* Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for the Plant Protection UAV with Millimeter Wave Radar and Monocular Camera Data Fusion

by 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2, 1,2,3 and 1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Engineering of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
2
Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, Ministry of Education, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
3
Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment of Jiangxi, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jorge Delgado García
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(17), 3364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173364
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 19 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue UAVs in Sustainable Agriculture)
To enhance obstacle avoidance abilities of the plant protection UAV in unstructured farmland, this article improved the traditional A* algorithms through dynamic heuristic functions, search point optimization, and inflection point optimization based on millimeter wave radar and monocular camera data fusion. Obstacle information extraction experiments were carried out. The performance between the improved algorithm and traditional algorithm was compared. Additionally, obstacle avoidance experiments were also carried out. The results show that the maximum error in distance measurement of data fusion method was 8.2%. Additionally, the maximum error in obstacle width and height measurement were 27.3% and 18.5%, respectively. The improved algorithm is more useful in path planning, significantly reduces data processing time, search grid, and turning points. The algorithm at most increases path length by 2.0%, at least reduces data processing time by 68.4%, search grid by 74.9%, and turning points by 20.7%. The maximum trajectory offset error was proportional to the flight speed, with a maximum trajectory offset of 1.4 m. The distance between the UAV and obstacle was inversely proportional to flight speed, with a minimum distance of 1.6 m. This method can provide a new idea for obstacle avoidance of the plant protection UAV. View Full-Text
Keywords: the plant protection UAV; obstacle avoidance; improved A* algorithm; millimeter wave radar; monocular camera; data fusion the plant protection UAV; obstacle avoidance; improved A* algorithm; millimeter wave radar; monocular camera; data fusion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, X.; Dong, X.; Ma, J.; Liu, K.; Ahmed, S.; Lin, J.; Qiu, B. The Improved A* Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for the Plant Protection UAV with Millimeter Wave Radar and Monocular Camera Data Fusion. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3364. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173364

AMA Style

Huang X, Dong X, Ma J, Liu K, Ahmed S, Lin J, Qiu B. The Improved A* Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for the Plant Protection UAV with Millimeter Wave Radar and Monocular Camera Data Fusion. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(17):3364. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173364

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huang, Xin, Xiaoya Dong, Jing Ma, Kuan Liu, Shibbir Ahmed, Jinlong Lin, and Baijing Qiu. 2021. "The Improved A* Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for the Plant Protection UAV with Millimeter Wave Radar and Monocular Camera Data Fusion" Remote Sensing 13, no. 17: 3364. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173364

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