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Article

Spectral and Growth Characteristics of Willows and Maize in Soil Contaminated with a Layer of Crude or Refined Oil

1
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
2
Geography, School of Social Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
3
Civil Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
4
The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie DD2 5DA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(17), 3376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173376
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Soil Contamination by Remote Sensors)
Remote sensing holds great potential for detecting stress in vegetation caused by hydrocarbons, but we need to better understand the effects of hydrocarbons on plant growth and specific spectral expression. Willow (Salix viminalis var. Tora) cuttings and maize (Zea mays var. Lapriora) seedlings were grown in pots of loam soil containing a hydrocarbon-contaminated layer at the base of the pot (crude or refined oil) at concentrations of 0.5, 5, or 50 g·kg−1. Chlorophyll concentration, biomass, and growth of plants were determined through destructive and nondestructive sampling, whilst reflectance measurements were made using portable hyperspectral spectrometers. All biophysical (chlorophyll concentration and growth) variables decreased in the presence of high concentrations of hydrocarbons, but at lower concentrations an increase in growth and chlorophyll were often observed with respect to nonpolluted plants, suggesting a biphasic response to hydrocarbon presence. Absorption features were identified that related strongly to pigment concentration and biomass. Variations in absorption feature characteristics (band depth, band area, and band width) were dependent upon the hydrocarbon concentration and type, and showed the same biphasic pattern noted in the biophysical measurements. This study demonstrates that the response of plants to hydrocarbon pollution varies according to hydrocarbon concentration and that remote sensing has the potential to both detect and monitor the variable impacts of pollution in the landscape. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrocarbon pollution; hyperspectral remote sensing; vegetation indices; absorption features; reflectance spectra; plant stress hydrocarbon pollution; hyperspectral remote sensing; vegetation indices; absorption features; reflectance spectra; plant stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Serrano-Calvo, R.; Cutler, M.E.J.; Bengough, A.G. Spectral and Growth Characteristics of Willows and Maize in Soil Contaminated with a Layer of Crude or Refined Oil. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3376. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173376

AMA Style

Serrano-Calvo R, Cutler MEJ, Bengough AG. Spectral and Growth Characteristics of Willows and Maize in Soil Contaminated with a Layer of Crude or Refined Oil. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(17):3376. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173376

Chicago/Turabian Style

Serrano-Calvo, Raquel, Mark E.J. Cutler, and Anthony G. Bengough. 2021. "Spectral and Growth Characteristics of Willows and Maize in Soil Contaminated with a Layer of Crude or Refined Oil" Remote Sensing 13, no. 17: 3376. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13173376

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