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Article

Pass-by-Pass Ambiguity Resolution in Single GPS Receiver PPP Using Observations for Two Sequential Days: An Exploratory Study

1
GNSS Research Center, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Nottingham Geospatial Institute, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2TU, UK
3
The Sino-UK Geospatial Engineering Centre, Nottingham NG8 1NA, UK
4
Global Geospatial Engineering Ltd., Nottingham NG8 1NA, UK
5
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Catalão Fernandes and Pietro Tizzani
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(18), 3728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13183728
Received: 23 August 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
“Pass-by-pass” or “track-to-track” ambiguity resolution removes Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellite hardware delays between adjacent undifferenced (UD) ambiguities, which is often applied in precise orbit determination (POD) for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites to improve the accuracy of orbits. In this study, we carried out an exploratory study to use the “pass-by-pass” ambiguity resolution by differencing the undifferenced ambiguity candidates for two adjacent passes in sidereal days for a single Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver static Precise Point Positioning (PPP). Using the GPS observations from 132 globally distributed reference stations of International GPS Service (IGS), we find that 99.08% wide-lane (WL) and 97.83% narrow-lane (NL) double-difference ambiguities formed by the “pass-by-pass” method for all stations can be fixed to their nearest integers within absolute fractional residuals of 0.2 cycles. These proportions are higher than the corresponding values of network solution with multiple receivers with 97.39% and 91.20%, respectively. About 97% to 98% of ambiguities can be fixed finally on average. The comparison of the estimated station coordinates with the IGS weekly solutions reveals that the Root Mean Square (RMS) in East and North directions are 2-4 mm and is about 6 mm in the Up direction. For hourly data, it is found that the mean positioning accuracy improvement can achieve to about 10% after ambiguity resolution. From a dam deformation monitoring application, it shows that the fixing rate of WL and NL ambiguity can be closed to 100% and higher than 90%, respectively. The time series generated by PPP are also in agreement with the short baseline solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: precise point positioning; pass-by-pass ambiguity resolution; single receiver; fractional cycle biases; positioning precision precise point positioning; pass-by-pass ambiguity resolution; single receiver; fractional cycle biases; positioning precision
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, R.; Chen, Q.; Meng, X.; Psimoulis, P.; Jiang, W.; Xu, C. Pass-by-Pass Ambiguity Resolution in Single GPS Receiver PPP Using Observations for Two Sequential Days: An Exploratory Study. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 3728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13183728

AMA Style

Xi R, Chen Q, Meng X, Psimoulis P, Jiang W, Xu C. Pass-by-Pass Ambiguity Resolution in Single GPS Receiver PPP Using Observations for Two Sequential Days: An Exploratory Study. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(18):3728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13183728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xi, Ruijie, Qusen Chen, Xiaolin Meng, Panos Psimoulis, Weiping Jiang, and Caijun Xu. 2021. "Pass-by-Pass Ambiguity Resolution in Single GPS Receiver PPP Using Observations for Two Sequential Days: An Exploratory Study" Remote Sensing 13, no. 18: 3728. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13183728

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