Hyperspectral image classification is an emerging and interesting research area that has attracted several researchers to contribute to this field. Hyperspectral images have multiple narrow bands for a single image that enable the development of algorithms to extract diverse features. Three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (3D-DWT) has the advantage of extracting the spatial and spectral information simultaneously. Decomposing an image into a set of spatial–spectral components is an important characteristic of 3D-DWT. It has motivated us to perform the proposed research work. The novelty of this work is to bring out the features of 3D-DWT applicable to hyperspectral images classification using Haar, Fejér-Korovkin and Coiflet filters. Three-dimensional-DWT is implemented with the help of three stages of 1D-DWT. The first two stages of 3D-DWT are extracting spatial resolution, and the third stage is extracting the spectral content. In this work, the 3D-DWT features are extracted and fed to the following classifiers (i) random forest (ii) K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and (iii) support vector machine (SVM). Exploiting both spectral and spatial features help the classifiers to provide a better classification accuracy. A comparison of results was performed with the same classifiers without DWT features. The experiments were performed using Salinas Scene and Indian Pines hyperspectral datasets. From the experiments, it has been observed that the SVM with 3D-DWT features performs better in terms of the performance metrics such as overall accuracy, average accuracy and kappa coefficient. It has shown significant improvement compared to the state of art techniques. The overall accuracy of 3D-DWT+SVM is 88.3%, which is 14.5% larger than that of traditional SVM (77.1%) for the Indian Pines dataset. The classification map of 3D-DWT + SVM is more closely related to the ground truth map.
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