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Article

Evaluation of the Effect of a Growing up Milk Lite vs. Cow’s Milk on Diet Quality and Dietary Intakes in Early Childhood: The Growing up Milk Lite (GUMLi) Randomised Controlled Trial

1
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
3
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
4
Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, University of Auckland, Grafton 1023, New Zealand
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Centre for Longitudinal Research He Ara ki Mua, University of Auckland, Auckland 1743, New Zealand
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General Paediatrics, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents)
Summary scores provide an alternative approach to measuring dietary quality. The Growing Up Milk-Lite (GUMLi) Trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of children randomised to receive a reduced protein GUM (GUMLi) or unfortified cow’s milk (CM). In a secondary analysis of the GUMLi Trial, we used the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake (PANDiet) to determine the nutritional adequacy of the diets of participating children living in Auckland. The PANDiet was adapted to the New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values and data from four 24 h Recalls (24HR) collected at months 7, 8, 10, and 11 post-randomisation were used. Differences between randomised groups (GUMLi vs. CM) of the PANDiet and its components were made. Eighty-three Auckland participants were included in the study (GUMLi n = 41 vs. CM n = 42). Total PANDiet scores were significantly higher in the GUMLi group (p < 0.001), indicating better overall nutrient adequacy and diet quality. Dietary intakes of children in both groups met the recommendations for fat, total carbohydrates and most micronutrients; however, protein intakes exceeded recommendations. Consumption of GUMLi was associated with higher nutritional adequacy, with an increased likelihood of meeting nutrient requirements; however, the impact of the family diet and GUMLi on dietary diversity requires further evaluation. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet quality; PANDiet index; early childhood; nutritional adequacy; nutrient intake quality; growing up milk diet quality; PANDiet index; early childhood; nutritional adequacy; nutrient intake quality; growing up milk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lovell, A.L.; Milne, T.; Jiang, Y.; Chen, R.X.; Grant, C.C.; Wall, C.R. Evaluation of the Effect of a Growing up Milk Lite vs. Cow’s Milk on Diet Quality and Dietary Intakes in Early Childhood: The Growing up Milk Lite (GUMLi) Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2019, 11, 203. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11010203

AMA Style

Lovell AL, Milne T, Jiang Y, Chen RX, Grant CC, Wall CR. Evaluation of the Effect of a Growing up Milk Lite vs. Cow’s Milk on Diet Quality and Dietary Intakes in Early Childhood: The Growing up Milk Lite (GUMLi) Randomised Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):203. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11010203

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lovell, Amy L., Tania Milne, Yannan Jiang, Rachel X. Chen, Cameron C. Grant, and Clare R. Wall 2019. "Evaluation of the Effect of a Growing up Milk Lite vs. Cow’s Milk on Diet Quality and Dietary Intakes in Early Childhood: The Growing up Milk Lite (GUMLi) Randomised Controlled Trial" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 203. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11010203

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