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Review

Impact of Cocoa Products Intake on Plasma and Urine Metabolites: A Review of Targeted and Non-Targeted Studies in Humans

1
Centro Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro 11501-2060, Costa Rica
2
Escuela de Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro 11501-2060, Costa Rica
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health)
Cocoa is continuously drawing attention due to growing scientific evidence suggesting its effects on health. Flavanols and methylxanthines are some of the most important bioactive compounds present in cocoa. Other important bioactives, such as phenolic acids and lactones, are derived from microbial metabolism. The identification of the metabolites produced after cocoa intake is a first step to understand the overall effect on human health. In general, after cocoa intake, methylxanthines show high absorption and elimination efficiencies. Catechins are transformed mainly into sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. Metabolism of procyanidins is highly influenced by the polymerization degree, which hinders their absorption. The polymerization degree over three units leads to biotransformation by the colonic microbiota, resulting in valerolactones and phenolic acids, with higher excretion times. Long term intervention studies, as well as untargeted metabolomic approaches, are scarce. Contradictory results have been reported concerning matrix effects and health impact, and there are still scientific gaps that have to be addresed to understand the influence of cocoa intake on health. This review addresses different cocoa clinical studies, summarizes the different methodologies employed as well as the metabolites that have been identified in plasma and urine after cocoa intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa; chocolate; metabolites; biomarkers; metabolomics; urine; plasma; procyanidins; methylxanthines; polyphenols cocoa; chocolate; metabolites; biomarkers; metabolomics; urine; plasma; procyanidins; methylxanthines; polyphenols
MDPI and ACS Style

Mayorga-Gross, A.L.; Esquivel, P. Impact of Cocoa Products Intake on Plasma and Urine Metabolites: A Review of Targeted and Non-Targeted Studies in Humans. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1163. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051163

AMA Style

Mayorga-Gross AL, Esquivel P. Impact of Cocoa Products Intake on Plasma and Urine Metabolites: A Review of Targeted and Non-Targeted Studies in Humans. Nutrients. 2019; 11(5):1163. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mayorga-Gross, Ana L., and Patricia Esquivel. 2019. "Impact of Cocoa Products Intake on Plasma and Urine Metabolites: A Review of Targeted and Non-Targeted Studies in Humans" Nutrients 11, no. 5: 1163. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu11051163

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