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Associations of n-3, n-6 Fatty Acids Intakes and n-6:n-3 Ratio with the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: NHANES 2009–2016

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The School of Public Health of Qingdao University, No. 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266021, China
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Received: 7 December 2019 / Revised: 10 January 2020 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
Many studies have explored the association between n-3 fatty acids and depression, but research on the associations of n-6 fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio with depression is more scarce, and the results are controversial. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the associations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid intakes and n-6:n-3 ratio with the risk of depressive symptoms using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2016. Dietary data on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were obtained through two 24-h dietary recall interviews, and were adjusted by energy. Depressive symptoms were measured by PHQ-9 (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire). We applied logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the relationships of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids intake and n-6:n-3 ratio with the risk of depressive symptoms. A total of 17,431 individuals over 18 years old were enrolled in this study. In the multivariate-adjusted model 2, compared with the lowest category, the highest odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for n-3 fatty acid intake and n-6:n-3 ratio were 0.71 (0.55–0.92) and 1.66 (1.10–2.50), and middle OR (95% CI) for n-6 fatty acid intake was 0.72 (0.56–0.92), respectively. Our study suggests that n-3 and n-6 fatty acids intake were inversely associated with the risk of depressive symptoms, while the n-6:n-3 ratio was positively associated with the risk of depressive symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: depressive symptoms; n-3 fatty acids; n-6 fatty acids; n-6:n-3 ratio; dose-response depressive symptoms; n-3 fatty acids; n-6 fatty acids; n-6:n-3 ratio; dose-response
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Zhang, R.; Sun, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, D. Associations of n-3, n-6 Fatty Acids Intakes and n-6:n-3 Ratio with the Risk of Depressive Symptoms: NHANES 2009–2016. Nutrients 2020, 12, 240.

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