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Nutrients, Volume 12, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 376 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The composition and functioning of the gut microbiota, the complex population of microorganisms residing in the intestine, is strongly affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, among which diet is key. Important perturbations of the microbiota have been observed to contribute to disease risk, as in the case of neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, among others. Due to the role of diet in the modulation of the microbiota, its composition is of high interest in inherited errors of metabolism (IEMs) and may reveal an appealing therapeutic target. In IEMs, for example in phenylketonuria (PKU), since part of the therapeutic intervention is based on chronic or life-long tailored dietetic regimens, important variations of the microbial diversity or relative abundance have been observed. View this paper
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Article
Association of Ultrasound-Derived Metrics of the Quadriceps Muscle with Protein Energy Wasting in Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113597 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
This study aimed to assess muscle wasting and risk of protein energy wasting (PEW) in hemodialysis (HD) patients using an ultrasound (US) imaging method. PEW was identified using the ISRNM criteria in 351 HD patients. Quadriceps muscle thickness of rectus femoris (RF) and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess muscle wasting and risk of protein energy wasting (PEW) in hemodialysis (HD) patients using an ultrasound (US) imaging method. PEW was identified using the ISRNM criteria in 351 HD patients. Quadriceps muscle thickness of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the RF muscle (RFCSA) were measured using US and compared with other physical measures. Associations of US indices with PEW were determined by logistic regression. Irrespective of gender, PEW vs. non-PEW patients had smaller RF, VI muscles, and RFCSA (all p < 0.001). US muscle sites (all p < 0.001) discriminated PEW from non-PEW patients, but the RFCSA compared to bio-impedance spectroscopy had a greater area under the curve (AUC, 0.686 vs. 0.581), sensitivity (72.8% vs. 65.8%), and specificity (55.6% vs. 53.9%). AUC of the RFCSA was greatest for PEW risk in men (0.74, 95% CI: 0.66–0.82) and women (0.80, 95% CI: 0.70–0.90) (both p < 0.001). Gender-specific RFCSA values (men < 6.00 cm2; women < 4.47 cm2) indicated HD patients with smaller RFCSA were 8 times more likely to have PEW (AOR = 8.63, 95% CI: 4.80–15.50, p < 0.001). The US approach enabled discrimination of muscle wasting in HD patients with PEW. The RFCSA was identified as the best US site with gender-specific RFCSA values to associate with PEW risk, suggesting potential diagnostic criteria for muscle wasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Assessment Methodology: Current Update and Practice)
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Editorial
Gut Microbiota for Health: How Can Diet Maintain A Healthy Gut Microbiota?
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113596 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1427
Abstract
The human intestinal tract is colonized by a resilient integrated ecosystem represented by a complex consortium of trillions of microbes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Article
Functional Deficits in Gut Microbiome of Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Prediabetes Apparent in Metabolizing Bioactive (Poly)phenols
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113595 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota metabolize select dietary (poly)phenols to absorbable metabolites that exert biological effects important in metabolic health. Microbiota composition associated with health/disease status may affect its functional capacity to yield bioactive metabolites from dietary sources. Therefore, this study assessed gut microbiome composition [...] Read more.
Background: Gut microbiota metabolize select dietary (poly)phenols to absorbable metabolites that exert biological effects important in metabolic health. Microbiota composition associated with health/disease status may affect its functional capacity to yield bioactive metabolites from dietary sources. Therefore, this study assessed gut microbiome composition and its related functional capacity to metabolize fruit (poly)phenols in individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance (PreDM-IR, n = 26) compared to a metabolically healthy Reference group (n = 10). Methods: Shotgun sequencing was used to characterize gut microbiome composition. Targeted quantitative metabolomic analyses of plasma and urine collected over 24 h were used to assess microbial-derived metabolites in response to a (poly)phenol-rich raspberry test drink. Results: PreDM-IR compared to the Reference group: (1) enriched Blautia obeum and Blautia wexlerae and depleted Bacteroides dorei and Coprococcus eutactus. Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides spp. were depleted in the lean PreDM-IR subset; and (2) impaired microbial catabolism of select (poly)phenols resulting in lower 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A), phenyl-γ-valerolactones and various phenolic acids concentrations (p < 0.05). Controlling for obesity revealed relationships with microbial species that may serve as metagenomic markers of diabetes development and therapeutic targets. Conclusions: Data provide insight from multi-omics approaches to advance knowledge at the diet–gut–disease nexus serving as a platform for devising dietary strategies to improve metabolic health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Nutrition)
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Article
Iron Status is Associated with Mood, Cognition, and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113594 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
Several conditions are risk factors for iron deficiency (ID), some of which are highly prevalent in older individuals. Despite the amount of evidence pointing for a role of ID in cognition, mood and physical functional ability, the research addressing these associations in older [...] Read more.
Several conditions are risk factors for iron deficiency (ID), some of which are highly prevalent in older individuals. Despite the amount of evidence pointing for a role of ID in cognition, mood and physical functional ability, the research addressing these associations in older individuals is still scarce. In the present study, 162 older community-dwelling individuals (29.53% classified as ID) were enrolled in a cross-sectional analysis and characterized regarding cognition, mood, functional ability, general nutritional intake and iron status. Assessment of iron status was performed using several blood biomarkers. Storage and erythropoiesis dimensions were positively associated with memory, along with an interaction (moderator effect) between iron storage and nutritional status. A more depressed mood was negatively associated with (iron) transport, transport saturation and erythropoiesis dimensions, and functional tiredness was positively associated with the erythropoiesis dimension. These observations indicate that lower iron status is associated with depressive mood, functional tiredness and poorer memory ability, with the latter moderated by nutritional status. These findings suggest that using iron as a continuous variable may be useful in finding associations with iron homeostasis, eventually missed when iron levels are considered within the usual classification groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Article
Childhood Malnutrition and Association of Lean Mass with Metabolome and Hormone Profile in Later Life
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113593 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the associations of targeted metabolomics and hormone profiles data with lean mass index (LMI), which were estimated using bioelectrical impedance, in survivors of child severe malnutrition (SM) (n = 69) and controls (n = 77) in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the associations of targeted metabolomics and hormone profiles data with lean mass index (LMI), which were estimated using bioelectrical impedance, in survivors of child severe malnutrition (SM) (n = 69) and controls (n = 77) in Malawi 7 years after being treated. Linear associations between individual metabolite or hormone and LMI were determined, including their interaction with nutrition status 7 years prior. Path analysis was performed to determine structural associations. Lastly, predictive models for LMI were developed using the metabolome and hormone profile by elastic net regularized regression (EN). Metabolites including several lipids, amino acids, and hormones were individually associated (p < 0.05 after false discovery rate correction) with LMI. However, plasma FGF21 (Control: β = −0.02, p = 0.59; Case: β = −0.14, p < 0.001) and tryptophan (Control: β = 0.15, p = 0.26; Case: β = 0.70, p < 0.001) were associated with LMI among cases but not among controls (both interaction p-values < 0.01). Moreover, path analysis revealed that tryptophan mediates the association between child SM and LMI. EN revealed that most predictors of LMI differed between groups, further indicating altered metabolic mechanisms driving lean mass accretion among SM survivors later in life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Article
A Comparison of Maternal Health Status and Weight-Related Cognitions, Behaviors, and Home Environments by Race/Ethnicity
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113592 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 919
Abstract
This cross-sectional study compared weight-related cognitions, behaviors, and home environments of 568 mothers of young children (ages 2 to <9 years) by racial/ethnic group. Maternal health status was good and did not differ by race/ethnicity. Mothers were somewhat confident in their ability to [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study compared weight-related cognitions, behaviors, and home environments of 568 mothers of young children (ages 2 to <9 years) by racial/ethnic group. Maternal health status was good and did not differ by race/ethnicity. Mothers were somewhat confident in their ability to promote healthy physical activity and eating behaviors in their children, with White and Asian mothers having greater confidence than Hispanic mothers. Mothers had low physical activity, with Hispanic mothers getting more sedentary screentime than White and Asian mothers. Mothers’ dietary intake did not differ. Modeling of healthful behaviors was more frequent in White than Hispanic mothers. Asian mothers tended to use non-recommended feeding patterns more than White, Hispanic, and Black mothers. Children’s physical activity and screentime did not differ by race/ethnicity. Asian children tended to drink less sugar-sweetened beverages and more milk than counterparts. All reported frequent family meals, with Hispanic mothers reporting more family meals eaten in less healthful locations. Household food environments did not differ. However, White mothers reported greater access to physical activity space and supports than Hispanic mothers. Race/ethnicity may link with maternal weight-related cognitions, behaviors, and home environments and thus can help inform the development of interventions tailored by race/ethnicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Clinical Profiles and Factors Associated with a Low Sodium Intake in the Population: An Analysis of the Swiss Survey on Salt
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113591 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 853
Abstract
As a part of the salt controversy, it has been suggested that people with a low sodium intake have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, there is no clear explanation for this increased risk. We examined the socio-demographic, clinical profile, and behavioral [...] Read more.
As a part of the salt controversy, it has been suggested that people with a low sodium intake have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, there is no clear explanation for this increased risk. We examined the socio-demographic, clinical profile, and behavioral factors associated with a low sodium intake in the Swiss subjects who participated in the Swiss Survey on Salt. Only 13.3% of the Swiss population eat less than 5 g of salt daily and among them 78.2% are women. Subjects with a low sodium intake eat and drink less as reflected by lower intakes of proteins, potassium, and calcium and a smaller urine volume. In addition, a low blood pressure, a normal body mass index, a low prevalence of obesity, a low serum uric acid, and less alcohol and cigarette consumption characterized this group, suggesting a rather low cardiovascular risk profile. Being single and doing most of the cooking at home are associated with a low intake of sodium, as well as a less frequent consumption of meat and fish when eating less than 5 g salt per day. However, the awareness of the effects of salt on health and cardiovascular risk, health concerns, and physical activity are similar in subjects eating more or less salt. In conclusion, we could not evidence clinical or behavioral factors that could significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular events in low salt eaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Sodium and Human Health)
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Article
Integrating Nutrition into Outpatient Oncology Care—A Pilot Trial of the NutriCare Program
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113590 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 792
Abstract
Nutrition is an essential part of oncology care; however, nutrition advice and guidance are not always provided. This six-week pilot pretest-posttest intervention was designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of integrating a nutrition education program (NutriCare) into outpatient oncology care. Twenty breast [...] Read more.
Nutrition is an essential part of oncology care; however, nutrition advice and guidance are not always provided. This six-week pilot pretest-posttest intervention was designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of integrating a nutrition education program (NutriCare) into outpatient oncology care. Twenty breast cancer survivors were recruited through Tufts Medical Centre. Nutrition impact symptoms and demographics were collected at baseline, dietary quality and quality of life measures were collected pre and post-intervention and an evaluation form was completed post-intervention. Forty-four percent of eligible participants were recruited, and 90% of those completed the study. The NutriCare program was well received with participants reporting that goals were feasible (94.4%), the program had a positive impact on their diet (77.8%), and over 80% would recommend the program. There was an interest in continuing with the program (89%) and in receiving additional guidance from the healthcare team (83%). There was a significant improvement (p = 0.04) in physical function over the six weeks; however, no additional significant differences in quality of life or dietary quality were seen. In conclusion, cancer survivors were positive about the NutriCare program and its integration into practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Cancer Survivors)
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Article
Sex-Specific Effects of Chronic Creatine Supplementation on Hippocampal-Mediated Spatial Cognition in the 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113589 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
The creatine (Cr) energy system has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including reductions in brain phosphoCr and Cr kinase, yet no studies have examined the neurobehavioral effects of Cr supplementation in AD, including the 3xTg mouse model. This studied investigated the effects [...] Read more.
The creatine (Cr) energy system has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including reductions in brain phosphoCr and Cr kinase, yet no studies have examined the neurobehavioral effects of Cr supplementation in AD, including the 3xTg mouse model. This studied investigated the effects of Cr supplementation on spatial cognition, plasticity- and disease-related protein levels, and mitochondrial function in the 3xTg hippocampus. Here, 3xTg mice were fed a control or Cr-supplemented (3% Cr (w/w)) diet for 8–9 weeks and tested in the Morris water maze. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption (Seahorse) and protein levels (Western blots) were measured in the hippocampus in subsets of mice. Overall, 3xTg females exhibited impaired memory as compared to males. In females, Cr supplementation decreased escape latency and was associated with increased spatial search strategy use. In males, Cr supplementation decreased the use of spatial search strategies. Pilot data indicated mitochondrial enhancements with Cr supplementation in both sexes. In females, Cr supplementation increased CREB phosphorylation and levels of IκB (NF-κB suppressor), CaMKII, PSD-95, and high-molecular-weight amyloid β (Aβ) species, whereas Aβ trimers were reduced. These data suggest a beneficial preventative effect of Cr supplementation in females and warrant caution against Cr supplementation in males in the AD-like brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Impairment, Dementia, and Alzheimer's Disease)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of Edible Cricket Peptides on Hypertensive and Glycemic In Vitro Inhibition and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity on RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113588 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Recent studies continue to demonstrate the potential of edible insects as a protein base to obtain bioactive peptides applicable for functional food development. This study aimed at identifying antihypertensive, anti-glycemic, and anti-inflammatory peptides derived from the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of cricket protein [...] Read more.
Recent studies continue to demonstrate the potential of edible insects as a protein base to obtain bioactive peptides applicable for functional food development. This study aimed at identifying antihypertensive, anti-glycemic, and anti-inflammatory peptides derived from the in vitro gastrointestinal digests of cricket protein hydrolysates. After sequential fractionation, the protein digest subfraction containing the lowest molecular weight (<0.5 kDa), hydrophobic (C18) and cationic peptides (IEX) was found responsible for the most bioactivity. The cationic peptide fraction significantly reduced (p < 0.05) α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in vitro, and also inhibited the expression of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A total of 28 peptides were identified with mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and de novo sequencing from the potent fraction. Three novel peptides YKPRP, PHGAP, and VGPPQ were chosen for the molecular docking studies. PHGAP and VGPPQ exhibited a higher degree of non-covalent interactions with the enzyme active site residues and binding energies comparable to captopril. Results from this study demonstrate the bioactive potential of edible cricket peptides, especially as ACE inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Peptides)
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Article
Influence of Fermented Red Clover Extract on Skeletal Muscle in Early Postmenopausal Women: A Double-Blinded Cross-Over Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3587; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113587 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Objective: To investigate effects of supplementation with a fermented red clover (RC) extract on signaling proteins related to muscle protein synthesis and breakdown at rest and in response to a resistance exercise bout. Methods: Ten postmenopausal women completed a double-blinded cross-over trial with [...] Read more.
Objective: To investigate effects of supplementation with a fermented red clover (RC) extract on signaling proteins related to muscle protein synthesis and breakdown at rest and in response to a resistance exercise bout. Methods: Ten postmenopausal women completed a double-blinded cross-over trial with two different intervention periods performed in random order: (A) RC extract twice daily for 14 days, and (B) placebo drink twice daily for 14 days. The intervention periods were separated by a two-week washout period. After each intervention period a muscle tissue sample was obtained before and three hours after a one-legged resistance exercise bout. Muscle strength was assessed before and after each intervention period. Results: Protein expression of FOXO1 and FOXO3a, two key transcription factors involved in protein degradation, were significantly lower and HSP27, a protein involved in cell protection and prevention of protein aggregation was significantly higher following RC extract compared to placebo. No significant treatment × time interaction was observed for muscle protein expression in response to exercise. However, p-mTOR, p-p70S6k and HSP90 protein content were significantly increased in response to exercise in both groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that RC extract supplementation downregulates molecular markers of muscle protein degradation compared to placebo in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Effects of a Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian Diet on the Plasma Lipidome and Its Association with Atherosclerotic Burden in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease—A Randomized, Open-Label, Cross-over Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113586 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1668
Abstract
A vegetarian diet has been associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma triacylglycerols, ceramides, and phosphatidylcholines may improve prediction of recurrent coronary events. We sought to investigate effects of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (VD) on plasma lipidome in CAD patients [...] Read more.
A vegetarian diet has been associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma triacylglycerols, ceramides, and phosphatidylcholines may improve prediction of recurrent coronary events. We sought to investigate effects of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (VD) on plasma lipidome in CAD patients and simultaneously assess associations of plasma lipids with the extent of coronary atherosclerotic burden. We analyzed 214 plasma lipids within glycerolipid, sphingolipid, and sterol lipid classes using lipidomics from a randomized controlled, crossover trial comprising 31 CAD patients on standard medical therapy. Subjects completed a four-week intervention with VD and isocaloric meat diet (MD), separated by a four-week washout period. The VD increased levels of 11 triacylglycerols and lowered 7 triacylglycerols, 21 glycerophospholipids, cholesteryl ester (18:0), and ceramide (d18:1/16:0) compared with MD. VD increased triacylglycerols with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyls while decreased triacylglycerols with saturated fatty acyls, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins than MD. The Sullivan extent score (SES) exhibited on coronary angiograms were inversely associated with triacylglycerols with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyls. Phosphatidylcholines that were lower with VD were positively associated with SES and the total number of stenotic lesions. The VD favorably changed levels of several lipotoxic lipids that have previously been associated with increased risk of coronary events in CAD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Allyl Isothiocyanate Protects Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury via NRF2 Activation by Decreasing Spontaneous Degradation in Hepatocyte
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3585; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113585 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most frequently prescribed analgesic and anti-pyretic drugs. However, APAP-induced hepatotoxicity is a major cause of acute liver failure globally. While the therapeutic dose is safe, an overdose of APAP produces an excess of the toxic metabolite N [...] Read more.
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most frequently prescribed analgesic and anti-pyretic drugs. However, APAP-induced hepatotoxicity is a major cause of acute liver failure globally. While the therapeutic dose is safe, an overdose of APAP produces an excess of the toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), subsequently resulting in hepatotoxicity. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a bioactive molecule in cruciferous plants, is reported to exert various biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial effects. Notably, AITC is known for activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), but there is limited evidence supporting the beneficial effects on hepatocytes and liver, where AITC is mainly metabolized. We applied a mouse model in the current study to investigate whether AITC protects the liver against APAP-induced injury, wherein we observed the protective effects of AITC. Furthermore, NRF2 nuclear translocation and the increase of target genes by AITC treatment were confirmed by in vitro experiments. APAP-induced cell damage was attenuated by AITC via an NRF2-dependent manner, and rapid NRF2 activation by AITC was attributed to the elevation of NRF2 stability by decreasing its spontaneous degradation. Moreover, liver tissues from our mouse experiment revealed that AITC increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an NRF2 target gene, confirming the potential of AITC as a hepatoprotective agent that induces NRF2 activation. Taken together, our results indicate the potential of AITC as a natural-product-derived NRF2 activator targeting the liver. Full article
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Article
Dietary Acrylamide Intake and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113584 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen in humans. Few studies have assessed dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, these studies are based on Western populations. Our purpose was to investigate the association of dietary acrylamide intake with the risk of [...] Read more.
Acrylamide is a probable carcinogen in humans. Few studies have assessed dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, these studies are based on Western populations. Our purpose was to investigate the association of dietary acrylamide intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer utilizing data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. We evaluated the data of 89,729 participants aged 45–74 years, who replied to a questionnaire on past medical history and lifestyle habits from 1995–1998. Dietary acrylamide intake was estimated utilizing a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals by using Cox proportional-hazards regression models. The average follow-up was 15.2 years, and 576 cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed. In the multivariate-adjusted model, an association between dietary acrylamide intake and pancreatic cancer risk was not demonstrated (hazard ratio for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.65–1.05, p for trend = 0.07). Furthermore, in the analyses stratified by sex, smoking status, coffee consumption, green tea consumption, alcohol consumption, and body mass index, no significant association was detected. Dietary acrylamide intake was not associated with the pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Association between Dietary Acrylamide Exposure and Cancer Risk)
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Article
The Efficacy of an Energy-Restricted Anti-Inflammatory Diet for the Management of Obesity in Younger Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3583; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113583 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1685
Abstract
There is growing evidence of the dietary impact on obesity-induced low-grade chronic inflammation and the associated chronic non-communicable diseases modification. We determined changes in body composition and cardiometabolic and inflammatory status of participants with obesity after 24 weeks of a dietary intervention based [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence of the dietary impact on obesity-induced low-grade chronic inflammation and the associated chronic non-communicable diseases modification. We determined changes in body composition and cardiometabolic and inflammatory status of participants with obesity after 24 weeks of a dietary intervention based on an energy-reduced anti-inflammatory diet and examined the relationship of these changes with changes in the inflammatory potential of the diet. The anthropometric and body composition parameters of 81 participants (average age of 43 years, 74 women) were assessed. Metabolic status was determined using the glycemic and lipid statuses, and the cardiometabolic index and inflammatory status were determined using the concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The inflammatory potential of the diet was assessed using the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®). Intervention with an anti-inflammatory diet resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and visceral adipose tissue and caused improvements in the participants’ cardiometabolic and inflammatory statuses. The anti-inflammatory diet was shown to be effective regarding obesity management. The study data could advance current scientific knowledge in the field of inflammation and diet, provide guidelines for obesity management, and find its application in routine clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Interventions for Chronic Pain and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Article
Obesity Risk Assessment Tool for Low-Income Spanish Speaking Immigrant Parents with Young Children: Validity with BMI and Biomarkers of Obesity
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3582; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113582 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
Children of Hispanic origin bear a high risk of obesity. Child weight gain trajectories are influenced by the family environment, including parent feeding practices. Excessive body fat can result in unhealthful metabolic and lipid profiles and increased risk of metabolic diseases. The objective [...] Read more.
Children of Hispanic origin bear a high risk of obesity. Child weight gain trajectories are influenced by the family environment, including parent feeding practices. Excessive body fat can result in unhealthful metabolic and lipid profiles and increased risk of metabolic diseases. The objective was to estimate criterion validity of an obesity risk assessment tool targeting Spanish-speaking families of Mexican origin using anthropometric measures and blood values of their young children. A cross-sectional study design with five data collection sessions was conducted over an eight-week period and involved 206 parent/child dyads recruited at Head Start and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Northern California. Main outcome measures were criterion validity of Niños Sanos, a pediatric obesity risk assessment tool, using anthropometric measures and blood biomarkers. Niños Sanos scores were inversely related to child BMI-for-age percentiles (p = 0.02), waist-for-height ratios (p = 0.05) and inversely related to blood biomarkers for the metabolic index (p = 0.03) and lipid index (p = 0.05) and positively related to anti-inflammatory index (p = 0.047). Overall, children with higher Niños Sanos scores had more healthful lipid, metabolic and inflammatory profiles, as well as lower BMI-for-age percentiles and waist-to height ratios, providing evidence for the criterion validity of the tool. Niños Sanos can be used by child obesity researchers, by counselors and medical professionals during clinic visits as a screening tool and by educators as a tool to set goals for behavior change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113581 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Selenium is involved in many metabolic pathways that are critical for life. Information concerning the metabolic effects of selenium in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obesity is still conflicting and incomplete. The pre- and post-pubertal selenium profiles of patients with ASD and obesity [...] Read more.
Selenium is involved in many metabolic pathways that are critical for life. Information concerning the metabolic effects of selenium in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obesity is still conflicting and incomplete. The pre- and post-pubertal selenium profiles of patients with ASD and obesity have not yet been investigated. The goal of the study was to examine selenium content before and after puberty in euthyroid children diagnosed with ASD, compared to age-matched neurotypical controls, with respect to overweight or obesity as a co-existing pathology. Serum, toenail, and 24h urine selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 287 prepubertal children (mean age 8.09 years), divided into groups: ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob+); ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob−); non-ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob+); and non-ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob−). The assessment was repeated in 258 of the children after puberty (mean age 14.26 years).The lowest serum (p < 0.001), urine (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels before and after puberty were observed in ASD+/Ob+ patients, and the highest in ASD−/Ob−. There were no differences in serum/toenail selenium levels between ASD+/Ob− and ASD−/Ob+ groups. The presence of ASD was associatedwith lower serum (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium in BMI-matched groups. In neurotypical patients, post-pubertal serum selenium levels were lower (p < 0.001) than pre-pubertal levels. In the multiple linear regression analyses, selenium levels showed inverse relationships with BMI (p < 0.001) and male gender (p < 0.001), irrespective of the sample type. The serum (p = 0.002) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels were inversely associated with the presence of ASD. ASD, obesity/overweight, and male gender have independent impacts on selenium levels in children. Puberty may affect selenium content in neurotypical children of both genders, but not in ASD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
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Article
Twelve-Week Daily Consumption of ad hoc Fortified Milk with ω-3, D, and Group B Vitamins Has a Positive Impact on Inflammaging Parameters: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3580; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113580 - 22 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Background and Aim: A state of chronic, subclinical inflammation known as inflammaging is present in elderly people and represents a risk factor for all age-related diseases. Dietary supplementation with ad hoc fortified foods seems an appealing strategy to counteract inflammaging. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: A state of chronic, subclinical inflammation known as inflammaging is present in elderly people and represents a risk factor for all age-related diseases. Dietary supplementation with ad hoc fortified foods seems an appealing strategy to counteract inflammaging. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of elderly-tailored fortified milk on inflammaging and different health parameters. Methods: A double-blind randomized cross-over study was performed on forty-eight volunteers aged 63–80 years. The fortified milk was enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA; docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), vitamins (25-hydroxyvitamin D, E, C, B6, B9, B12), and trace elements (zinc, selenium). The two intervention periods lasted for 12 weeks, with a 16-week washout intermission. Results: Compared to placebo, the consumption of fortified milk increased the circulating levels of different micronutrients, including vitamins and the ω-3 index of erythrocyte membranes. Conversely, it reduced the amount of arachidonic acid, homocysteine, and ω-6/ω-3 ratio. Conclusion: Twelve-week daily consumption of adhoc fortified milk has an overall positive impact on different health parameters related to inflammaging in the elderly. Full article
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Article
Association between Habitual Dietary Iron Intake and Glucose Metabolism in Individuals after Acute Pancreatitis
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3579; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113579 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 687
Abstract
Dietary intake of iron is known to be associated with impaired glucose metabolism. However, its involvement in derangements of glucose metabolism after acute pancreatitis (AP) is not completely understood. The aim was to investigate the association between dietary iron intake and markers of [...] Read more.
Dietary intake of iron is known to be associated with impaired glucose metabolism. However, its involvement in derangements of glucose metabolism after acute pancreatitis (AP) is not completely understood. The aim was to investigate the association between dietary iron intake and markers of glucose metabolism in individuals after an attack of AP. Fasting blood samples were collected to analyse markers of glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)). The EPIC-Norfolk food frequency questionnaire was used to determine the habitual intake of dietary iron (total, haem, and non-haem). Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted and six statistical models were built to adjust for covariates. A total of 109 individuals after AP were studied in a cross-sectional fashion. Total iron (β (95% confidence interval) = −0.19 (−0.35, −0.05); p = 0.01 in the most adjusted model) and non-haem iron (β (95% confidence interval) = −0.19 (−0.33, −0.04); p = 0.03 in the most adjusted model) were significantly associated with FPG, consistently in all adjusted model. Total iron and non-haem iron did not have consistent significant associations with HbA1c. Dietary haem iron intake was not associated with either FPG or HbA1c. Habitual intake of dietary iron is inversely associated with FPG in individuals after an attack of AP and may be involved in the pathogenesis of new-onset diabetes after pancreatitis. Prospective longitudinal studies are now warranted to unveil the specific mechanism underlying the involvement of dietary iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Article
The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Physical Fitness of the Relationship between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Health-Related Quality of Life in University Students
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3578; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113578 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in university students and to assess whether this relationship is mediated or moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and handgrip [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in university students and to assess whether this relationship is mediated or moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and handgrip strength. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 310 first-year Spanish university students. Adherence to the MD was evaluated with the 14-item Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), and the HRQoL was evaluated with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) questionnaire. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test, and the handgrip strength was determined by dynamometry. ANCOVA models showed that participants with higher CRF and handgrip strength levels had significantly higher scores in the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-12 and in the MEDAS questionnaire than those with medium and low scores (p < 0.050). Additionally, the ANCOVA models showed that students with good adherence to the MD showed higher scores in the MCS of HRQoL than those with low adherence (p = 0.044, ES = 0.013), but these results did not appear for the PCS of HRQoL (p = 0.728, ES = 0.001). In the mediation analysis, it was found that CRF and handgrip strength acted as full mediators of the relationship between adherence to the MD and the MCS of HRQoL. In the moderation analysis, it was evidenced that CRF and handgrip strength did not act as moderators in the relationship between adherence to the MD and the MCS of HRQoL. In conclusion, adherence to the MD does not seem to have a direct effect on the MCS of HRQoL because this association seems to be fully mediated by CRF and handgrip strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Habits and Health among College and University Students)
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Article
Rubi Fructus Water Extract Alleviates LPS-Stimulated Macrophage Activation via an ER Stress-Induced Calcium/CHOP Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3577; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113577 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, many intractable infectious diseases still threaten human health across the globe. Uncontrolled infections can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, known as a cytokine storm. As cytokines also play [...] Read more.
Despite the availability of antibiotics and vaccines, many intractable infectious diseases still threaten human health across the globe. Uncontrolled infections can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, known as a cytokine storm. As cytokines also play necessary and positive roles in fighting infections, it is important to identify nontoxic and anti-inflammatory natural products that can modulate cytokine production caused by infections. Rubi Fructus, the unripe fruits of Rubus coreanus Miquel, are known to possess antioxidative properties. In this study, the effect of the water extract of Rubi Fructus (RF) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated using biochemical and cell biology techniques. Our data indicated that RF inhibits p38 phosphorylation, intracellular calcium release, and the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in LPS-treated macrophages. In addition, we observed decreasing mRNA expression of Chop, Camk2a, Stat1, Stat3, Jak2, Fas, c-Jun, c-Fos, Nos2, and Ptgs2 without cytotoxic effects. We concluded that RF demonstrated immunoregulatory activity on LPS-stimulated macrophages via an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced calcium/CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) pathway and the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Disease Prevention, Relief and Treatment)
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Article
Anti-Obesity and Antidiabetic Effects of Nelumbinis Semen Powder in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113576 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
Nelumbinis Semen (NS, the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera) extract is a traditional Korean medicine with anti-oxidant activity. The present study examined the anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of NS powder in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 8/group) were [...] Read more.
Nelumbinis Semen (NS, the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera) extract is a traditional Korean medicine with anti-oxidant activity. The present study examined the anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects of NS powder in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 8/group) were fed a normal diet (CON), HFD, HFD containing 5% NS powder (HFD-NS5%), or HFD containing 10% NS powder (HFD-NS10%) for 12 weeks. Food intake was relatively higher in groups HFD-NS5% and HFD-NS10%, while the food efficiency ratio was highest in group HFD (p < 0.05). HFD-NS5% reduced the body weight (−39.1%) and fat weight (−26.6%), including epididymal fat and perirenal fat, and lowered the serum triglyceride levels (−20.6%) compared with HFD. Groups HFD-NS5% and HFD-NS10% showed hepatoprotective properties, reducing the serum ALT levels (p < 0.05) and fat globules (size and number) in the liver compared with group HFD. HFD-NS5% and HFD-NS10% regulated the blood glucose, improved the glucose intolerance, and showed a 12.5% and 15.0% reduction in the area under the curve (AUC) of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and a 26.8% and 47.3% improvement in homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), respectively, compared with HFD (p < 0.05). Regarding the expressions of genes related to anti-obesity and antidiabetes, there was a 1.7- and 1.3-fold increase in PPAR-α protein expression, 1.4- and 1.6-fold increase in PPAR-γ protein expression, and 0.7- and 0.6-fold decrease in TNF-α protein expression, respectively, following HFD-NS5% and HFD-NS10% treatments, compared with HFD, and GLUT4 protein expression increased relative to CON (p < 0.05). These results comprehensively provide the fundamental data for NS powder’s functional and health-promoting benefits associated with anti-obesity and antidiabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Article
Dietary Polyamines Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113575 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Polyamines (including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are small, cationic molecules that are necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Few studies have examined the association of dietary polyamines intake with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate total polyamines, putrescine, [...] Read more.
Polyamines (including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are small, cationic molecules that are necessary for cell proliferation and differentiation. Few studies have examined the association of dietary polyamines intake with colorectal cancer risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate total polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in China. In total, 2502 colorectal cancer cases and 2538 age-(5-year interval) and sex-matched controls were recruited from July 2010 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by multivariable unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for various potential confounding factors. Higher intake of total polyamine, putrescine and spermidine was significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer. The adjusted ORs for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.60 (95% CI 0.50, 0.72; Ptrend < 0.001) for total polyamines, 0.35 (95% CI 0.29, 0.43; Ptrend < 0.001) for putrescine and 0.79 (95% CI 0.66, 0.95; Ptrend = 0.001) for spermidine, respectively. However, higher intake of spermine was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, with an adjusted OR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.29, 1.93; Ptrend < 0.001). This data indicate that higher intake of total polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, as well as lower intake of spermine, is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Review
Impact of Sugary Food Consumption on Pregnancy: A Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3574; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113574 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Obesity in pregnancy has been directly associated with an increased risk of almost all pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and premature delivery. Thereby, according to current evidence available, life-style interventions to prevent pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in [...] Read more.
Obesity in pregnancy has been directly associated with an increased risk of almost all pregnancy complications such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and premature delivery. Thereby, according to current evidence available, life-style interventions to prevent pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in women of fertile age are necessary to reduce the negative impact of obesity on mother and child health. Unhealthy dietary patterns, together with the increased consumption of processed foods rich in simple sugar and sweeteners are some of the responsible, among others, for the increase in obesity rates during the last years. Nevertheless, how its consumption can affect pregnancy outcomes and long-term children’s health is still uncertain. This review aims to collate the available evidence about the consequences of unhealthy dietary patterns and sugary products consumption, including sweeteners, during pregnancy for obesity in childhood and mid-childhood. High simple sugar intake during gestation may contribute to an excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) as well as to develop other pregnancy complications such as GDM, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The heterogeneity of study populations, sample size, different approaches to measure GWG, GMD, preeclampsia, and birth weight, among other conditions, might explain the divergences observed among studies. Therefore, large, well-designed intervention-controlled trials with biological biomarkers to ensure dietary adherence are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in order to provide effective nutritional advice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugary Food Consumption and Its Impact on Health)
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Article
Immunostimulatory Effects of Live Lactobacillus sakei K040706 on the CYP-Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Model
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3573; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113573 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1171
Abstract
Our previous studies have shown that heat-killed Lactobacillus sakei K040706 exerts immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities in macrophages, cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated mice, and dextran sulfate sodium–induced colitis mice. However, the immunostimulatory effects of live Lactobacillus sakei K040706 (live K040706) against CYP-induced immunosuppression and its underlying [...] Read more.
Our previous studies have shown that heat-killed Lactobacillus sakei K040706 exerts immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities in macrophages, cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated mice, and dextran sulfate sodium–induced colitis mice. However, the immunostimulatory effects of live Lactobacillus sakei K040706 (live K040706) against CYP-induced immunosuppression and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the immunostimulatory effects of live K040706 (108 or 109 colony forming unit (CFU)/day, p.o.) in CYP-induced immunosuppressed mice. Oral administration of live K040706 prevented the CYP-induced decreases in body weight, thymus index, natural killer (NK) cell activity, T and B cell proliferation, and cytokine (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-12) production. The administration of live K040706 also exerted positive effects on the gut microbiota of CYP-induced mice, resulting in a microbiota composition similar to that of normal mice. Moreover, live K040706 significantly enhanced IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in the splenocytes and Peyer’s patch (PP) cells of mice and increased bone marrow (BM) cell proliferation. Taken together, our data indicate that live K040706 may effectively accelerate recovery from CYP-induced immunosuppression, leading to activation of the immune system. Therefore, live K040706 may serve as a potential immunomodulatory agent against immunosuppression. Full article
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Review
The Protective and Long-Lasting Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Cognition in Mammals
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3572; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113572 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
Over the last few years, research indicated that Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) may serve to enhance cognition during development. HMOs hereby provide an exciting avenue in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to cognitive development. Therefore, this review aims to summarize [...] Read more.
Over the last few years, research indicated that Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) may serve to enhance cognition during development. HMOs hereby provide an exciting avenue in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to cognitive development. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the reported observations regarding the effects of HMOs on memory and cognition in rats, mice and piglets. Our main findings illustrate that the administration of fucosylated (single or combined with Lacto-N-neoTetraose (LNnT) and other oligosaccharides) and sialylated HMOs results in marked improvements in spatial memory and an accelerated learning rate in operant tasks. Such beneficial effects of HMOs on cognition already become apparent during infancy, especially when the behavioural tasks are cognitively more demanding. When animals age, its effects become increasingly more apparent in simpler tasks as well. Furthermore, the combination of HMOs with other oligosaccharides yields different effects on memory performance as opposed to single HMO administration. In addition, an enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) response both at a young and at a mature age are reported as well. These results point towards the possibility that HMOs administered either in singular or combination forms have long-lasting, beneficial effects on memory and cognition in mammals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Brain Development)
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Article
Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Methods to Identify Nutritional Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113571 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) experience several nutritional challenges and are prone to develop malnutrition. This observational study aimed to perform a comprehensive nutritional assessment of outpatients diagnosed with RA and SpA, as well as to evaluate methods to identify [...] Read more.
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) experience several nutritional challenges and are prone to develop malnutrition. This observational study aimed to perform a comprehensive nutritional assessment of outpatients diagnosed with RA and SpA, as well as to evaluate methods to identify nutritional risk. Nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric measures, body composition (DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), and handgrip strength (HGS). Nutritional risk was classified by Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and malnutrition was defined by the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and fat-free mass index (FFMI; kg/m2, <16.7 (M), <14.6 (F)). Out of 71 included patients, 46 (66%) were abdominally obese, 28 (39%) were obese in terms of body mass index (BMI), and 33 (52%) were obese in terms of the fat mass index (FMI; kg/m2, ≥8.3 (M), ≥11.8 (F)). Malnutrition was identified according to FFMI in 12 (19%) patients, according to GLIM criteria in 5 (8%) patients, and on the basis of BMI (<18.5 kg/m2) in 1 (1%) patient. None were identified by NRS2002 to be at nutritional risk. Our study revealed high prevalence of abdominal obesity and low FFMI. Waist circumference was a good indicator of FMI. BMI, NRS2002, and HGS did not capture patients with malnutrition identified by DXA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolism in Rheumatic Diseases)
Review
Congenital, Intrapartum and Postnatal Maternal-Fetal-Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 Infections: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113570 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Background: There is inconclusive evidence regarding congenital, intrapartum, and postnatal maternal-fetal-neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. A narrative review was conducted with the aim of guiding clinicians on the management of pregnant women with respect to congenital, intrapartum, and postnatal maternal-fetal-neonatal SARS-CoV-2 [...] Read more.
Background: There is inconclusive evidence regarding congenital, intrapartum, and postnatal maternal-fetal-neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. A narrative review was conducted with the aim of guiding clinicians on the management of pregnant women with respect to congenital, intrapartum, and postnatal maternal-fetal-neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections and breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Searches were conducted in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Dialnet, CUIDEN, Scielo, and Virtual Health Library to identify observational, case series, case reports, and randomized controlled trial studies assessing the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to baby and/or through breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 49 studies was included in this review, comprising 329 pregnant women and 331 neonates (two pregnant women delivered twins). The studies were performed in China (n = 26), USA (n = 7), Italy (n = 3), Iran (n = 2), Switzerland (n = 1), Spain (n = 1), Turkey (n = 1), Australia (n = 1), India (n = 1), Germany (n = 1), France (n = 1), Canada (n = 1), Honduras (n = 1), Brazil (n = 1), and Peru (n = 1). Samples from amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, placenta, cervical secretion, and breastmilk were collected and analyzed. A total of 15 placental swabs gave positive results for SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) on the fetal side of the placenta. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in seven breastmilk samples. One umbilical cord sample was positive for SARS-CoV-2. One amniotic fluid sample tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions: This study presents some evidence to support the potential of congenital, intrapartum, and postnatal maternal-fetal-neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mothers should follow recommendations including wearing a facemask and hand washing before and after breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perinatal Nutrition: A Strategy to Improve Offspring’s Health)
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Article
Influence of Dietary Habits and Mediterranean Diet Adherence on Sleep Quality during Pregnancy. The GESTAFIT Project
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3569; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113569 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
We examined the association of the dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence with sleep quality during pregnancy. A food frequency questionnaire and the Mediterranean Food Pattern were employed to assess dietary habits and MD adherence, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed with [...] Read more.
We examined the association of the dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence with sleep quality during pregnancy. A food frequency questionnaire and the Mediterranean Food Pattern were employed to assess dietary habits and MD adherence, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score (n = 150; mean age 32.9 ± 4.6 years). A higher consumption of fruits was associated with better sleep quality at the 16th gestational week (g.w.; p < 0.05). A greater olive oil consumption and a higher MD adherence were associated with better sleep quality at the 16th and 34th g.w. (all, p < 0.05). Contrarily, a higher red meat and subproducts consumption was associated with worse sleep quality at the 34th g.w. (p < 0.05). The group with the highest adherence to the MD (Tertile 3) showed better sleep quality than the group with the lowest adherence (Tertile 1) at the 16th and 34th g.w. (both, p < 0.05). A higher adherence to the MD, a greater intake of fruits and olive oil and a lower intake of red meat and subproducts were associated with better sleep quality along the pregnancy course, especially among sedentary women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nutritional Psychiatry)
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Review
In Love with Shaping You—Influential Factors on the Breast Milk Content of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Their Decisive Roles for Neonatal Development
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3568; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12113568 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally versatile sugar molecules constituting the third major group of soluble components in human breast milk. Based on the disaccharide lactose, the mammary glands of future and lactating mothers produce a few hundreds of different HMOs implicating that [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally versatile sugar molecules constituting the third major group of soluble components in human breast milk. Based on the disaccharide lactose, the mammary glands of future and lactating mothers produce a few hundreds of different HMOs implicating that their overall anabolism utilizes rather high amounts of energy. At first sight, it therefore seems contradictory that these sugars are indigestible for infants raising the question of why such an energy-intensive molecular class evolved. However, in-depth analysis of their molecular modes of action reveals that Mother Nature created HMOs for neonatal development, protection and promotion of health. This is not solely facilitated by HMOs in their indigestible form but also by catabolites that are generated by microbial metabolism in the neonatal gut additionally qualifying HMOs as natural prebiotics. This narrative review elucidates factors influencing the HMO composition as well as physiological roles of HMOs on their way through the infant body and within the gut, where a major portion of HMOs faces microbial catabolism. Concurrently, this work summarizes in vitro, preclinical and observational as well as interventional clinical studies that analyzed potential health effects that have been demonstrated by or were related to either human milk-derived or synthetic HMOs or HMO fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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