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Dietary Factors Modulating Colorectal Carcinogenesis

Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of L’Aquila, Piazza S. Tommasi, 1- Coppito, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 28 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
The development of colorectal cancer, responsible for 9% of cancer-related deaths, is favored by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The modification of diet and lifestyle may modify the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and prevent neoplasia in up to 50% of cases. The Western diet, characterized by a high intake of fat, red meat and processed meat has emerged as an important contributor. Conversely, a high intake of dietary fiber partially counteracts the unfavorable effects of meat through multiple mechanisms, including reduced intestinal transit time and dilution of carcinogenic compounds. Providing antioxidants (e.g., vitamins C and E) and leading to increased intraluminal production of protective fermentation products, like butyrate, represent other beneficial and useful effects of a fiber-rich diet. Protective effects on the risk of developing colorectal cancer have been also advocated for some specific micronutrients like vitamin D, selenium, and calcium. Diet-induced modifications of the gut microbiota modulate colonic epithelial cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. This can have, under different conditions, opposite effects on the risk of CRC, through the production of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents or, conversely, of protective compounds. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent evidence on the role of diet as a potential risk factor for the development of colorectal malignancies, as well as providing possible prevention dietary strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; diet; nutrition; red meat; processed meat; fiber; vitamins; short chain fatty acids (SCFA) colorectal cancer; diet; nutrition; red meat; processed meat; fiber; vitamins; short chain fatty acids (SCFA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vernia, F.; Longo, S.; Stefanelli, G.; Viscido, A.; Latella, G. Dietary Factors Modulating Colorectal Carcinogenesis. Nutrients 2021, 13, 143.

AMA Style

Vernia F, Longo S, Stefanelli G, Viscido A, Latella G. Dietary Factors Modulating Colorectal Carcinogenesis. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):143.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vernia, Filippo, Salvatore Longo, Gianpiero Stefanelli, Angelo Viscido, and Giovanni Latella. 2021. "Dietary Factors Modulating Colorectal Carcinogenesis" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 143.

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