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Review

An Update on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health

1
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA
2
Tulane Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Director Medical and Scientific Communications, Pharmavite LLC., West Hills, CA 91304, USA
4
Saint Luke’s of Kansas City, Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 10 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Omega-3s and Human Health)
Interest in the potential cardiovascular (CV) benefits of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3) began in the 1940s and was amplified by a subsequent landmark trial showing reduced CV disease (CVD) risk following acute myocardial infarction. Since that time, however, much controversy has circulated due to discordant results among several studies and even meta-analyses. Then, in 2018, three more large, randomized trials were released—these too with discordant findings regarding the overall benefits of Ω-3 therapy. Interestingly, the trial that used a higher dose (4 g/day highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) found a remarkable, statistically significant reduction in CVD events. It was proposed that insufficient Ω-3 dosing (<1 g/day EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), as well as patients aggressively treated with multiple other effective medical therapies, may explain the conflicting results of Ω-3 therapy in controlled trials. We have thus reviewed the current evidence regarding Ω-3 and CV health, put forth potential reasoning for discrepant results in the literature, highlighted critical concepts such as measuring blood levels of Ω-3 with a dedicated Ω-3 index and addressed current recommendations as suggested by health care professional societies and recent significant scientific data. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; omega 3 index; cardiovascular disease omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; omega 3 index; cardiovascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elagizi, A.; Lavie, C.J.; O’Keefe, E.; Marshall, K.; O’Keefe, J.H.; Milani, R.V. An Update on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health. Nutrients 2021, 13, 204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010204

AMA Style

Elagizi A, Lavie CJ, O’Keefe E, Marshall K, O’Keefe JH, Milani RV. An Update on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010204

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elagizi, Andrew, Carl J. Lavie, Evan O’Keefe, Keri Marshall, James H. O’Keefe, and Richard V. Milani 2021. "An Update on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 204. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010204

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