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Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Levels Are Associated with Early Systemic Inflammation in Extremely Preterm Infants
Article

Parenteral Fish-Oil Containing Lipid Emulsions Limit Initial Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Host Immune Responses in Preterm Pigs

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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Neonatology, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Children’s Nutrition Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Section Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Lipidomics Core Facility, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
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Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Division of Translational Research, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2020 / Revised: 31 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 12 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Metabolism in Inflammation and Immune Function)
Multicomponent lipid emulsions are available for critical care of preterm infants. We sought to determine the impact of different lipid emulsions on early priming of the host and its response to an acute stimulus. Pigs delivered 7d preterm (n = 59) were randomized to receive different lipid emulsions for 11 days: 100% soybean oil (SO), mixed oil emulsion (SO, medium chain olive oil and fish oil) including 15% fish oil (MO15), or 100% fish oil (FO100). On day 11, pigs received an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS—lyophilized Escherichia coli) or saline. Plasma was collected for fatty acid, oxylipin, metabolomic, and cytokine analyses. At day 11, plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels in the FO100 groups showed the highest increase in eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA (0.1 ± 0.0 to 9.7 ± 1.9, p < 0.001), docosahexaenoic acid, DHA (day 0 = 2.5 ± 0.7 to 13.6 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), EPA and DHA-derived oxylipins, and sphingomyelin metabolites. In the SO group, levels of cytokine IL1β increased at the first hour of LPS infusion (296.6 ± 308 pg/mL) but was undetectable in MO15, FO100, or in the animals receiving saline instead of LPS. Pigs in the SO group showed a significant increase in arachidonic acid (AA)-derived prostaglandins and thromboxanes in the first hour (p < 0.05). No significant changes in oxylipins were observed with either fish-oil containing group during LPS infusion. Host priming with soybean oil in the early postnatal period preserves a higher AA:DHA ratio and the ability to acutely respond to an external stimulus. In contrast, fish-oil containing lipid emulsions increase DHA, exacerbate a deficit in AA, and limit the initial LPS-induced inflammatory responses in preterm pigs. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; arachidonic acid; lipid metabolism; eicosanoids; oxylipins; metabolomics; sphingomyelin; acute inflammation; preterm pig fatty acids; arachidonic acid; lipid metabolism; eicosanoids; oxylipins; metabolomics; sphingomyelin; acute inflammation; preterm pig
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakah, W.; Ramiro-Cortijo, D.; Singh, P.; Brown, J.; Stoll, B.; Kulkarni, M.; Oosterloo, B.C.; Burrin, D.; Maddipati, K.R.; Fichorova, R.N.; Freedman, S.D.; Martin, C.R. Parenteral Fish-Oil Containing Lipid Emulsions Limit Initial Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Host Immune Responses in Preterm Pigs. Nutrients 2021, 13, 205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010205

AMA Style

Yakah W, Ramiro-Cortijo D, Singh P, Brown J, Stoll B, Kulkarni M, Oosterloo BC, Burrin D, Maddipati KR, Fichorova RN, Freedman SD, Martin CR. Parenteral Fish-Oil Containing Lipid Emulsions Limit Initial Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Host Immune Responses in Preterm Pigs. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yakah, William, David Ramiro-Cortijo, Pratibha Singh, Joanne Brown, Barbara Stoll, Madhulika Kulkarni, Berthe C. Oosterloo, Doug Burrin, Krishna R. Maddipati, Raina N. Fichorova, Steven D. Freedman, and Camilia R. Martin. 2021. "Parenteral Fish-Oil Containing Lipid Emulsions Limit Initial Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Host Immune Responses in Preterm Pigs" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 205. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13010205

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