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Effect of Acute Caffeine Intake on the Fat Oxidation Rate during Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Effects of p-Synephrine during Exercise: A Brief Narrative Review

Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Camilo José Cela University, 28693 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Spain
Faculty of Health Sciences, Francisco de Vitoria University, 28223 Pozuelo, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 9 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Phytochemicals on Fat Oxidation during Exercise)
The p-synephrine is the principal phytochemical found in bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). This substance is widely included in dietary supplements for weight loss/body fat reduction due to its potential benefits of increasing fat oxidation. For years, p-synephrine-containing dietary supplements have been marketed without proper knowledge of their true effectiveness to enhance fat utilization, especially when combined with exercise. However, the effects of p-synephrine on fat oxidation during exercise have been investigated in the last few years. The aim of the current discussion is to summarize the evidence on the effects of p-synephrine intake on fat oxidation and performance during exercise. Previous investigations have demonstrated that the acute intake of p-synephrine does not modify running sprint performance, jumping capacity, or aerobic capacity. However, the acute intake of p-synephrine, in a dose of 2–3 mg/kg of body mass, has been effective to enhance the rate of fat oxidation during incremental and continuous exercise. This effect has been observed in a range of exercise workloads between 30% and 80% of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). The p-synephrine has the ability to increase the maximal rate of fat oxidation during exercise of increasing intensity without affecting the workload at which maximal fat oxidation is obtained (Fatmax). The effect of p-synephrine on fat oxidation is normally accompanied by a concomitant reduction of carbohydrate utilization during exercise, without modifying the energy expended during exercise. The shifting in substrate oxidation is obtained without any effect on heart rate during exercise and the prevalence of adverse effects is negligible. Thus, the acute use of p-synephrine, or p-synephrine-containing products, might offer some benefits for those individuals seeking higher fat utilization during exercise at low to moderate intensities. However, more research is still necessary to determine if the effect of p-synephrine on fat oxidation during exercise is maintained with chronic ingestion, in order to ascertain the utility of this substance in conjunction with exercise programs to produce an effective body fat/weight loss reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaloids; body composition; carbohydrate sparing; weight loss; exercise alkaloids; body composition; carbohydrate sparing; weight loss; exercise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Moreno, C.; Del Coso, J.; Giráldez-Costas, V.; González-García, J.; Gutiérrez-Hellín, J. Effects of p-Synephrine during Exercise: A Brief Narrative Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 233.

AMA Style

Ruiz-Moreno C, Del Coso J, Giráldez-Costas V, González-García J, Gutiérrez-Hellín J. Effects of p-Synephrine during Exercise: A Brief Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):233.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz-Moreno, Carlos, Juan Del Coso, Verónica Giráldez-Costas, Jaime González-García, and Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín. 2021. "Effects of p-Synephrine during Exercise: A Brief Narrative Review" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 233.

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