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Obesity, Sodium Homeostasis, and Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology, Chair of Pediatrics, Pediatric Institute, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-663 Kraków, Poland
2
Department of Pediatrics, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Institute of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 30-663 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Albertino Bigiani
Received: 19 September 2021 / Revised: 10 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 11 November 2021
Background: The relationship between obesity, arterial hypertension, and excessive salt intake has been known for a long time; however, the mechanism of this relationship remains not clear. Methods: The paper presents a current literature review on the relationship between salt consumption and the development of arterial hypertension in children and adolescents with obesity. Results: In addition to the traditional theory of hypertension development due to the increase in intravascular volume and disturbances of sodium excretion, recent studies indicate the existence of a complex mechanism related to excessive, pathological secretory activity of adipocytes, insulin resistance, and impaired function of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis. That makes obese children and adolescents particularly vulnerable to the development of salt-sensitive arterial hypertension. Studies performed in many countries have shown that children and adolescents consume more sodium than recommended. It is worth noting, however, that the basis for these recommendations was the extrapolation of data from studies conducted on adults. Moreover, more important than sodium intake is the Na/K ratio and water consumption. Conclusion: Regardless of the population-wide recommendations on reducing salt intake in children, specific recommendations for overweight and obese patients should be developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; hypertension; salt; sodium; children obesity; hypertension; salt; sodium; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wójcik, M.; Kozioł-Kozakowska, A. Obesity, Sodium Homeostasis, and Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2021, 13, 4032. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114032

AMA Style

Wójcik M, Kozioł-Kozakowska A. Obesity, Sodium Homeostasis, and Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Nutrients. 2021; 13(11):4032. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wójcik, Małgorzata, and Agnieszka Kozioł-Kozakowska. 2021. "Obesity, Sodium Homeostasis, and Arterial Hypertension in Children and Adolescents" Nutrients 13, no. 11: 4032. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13114032

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