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Volume 13, November

Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 12 (December 2021) – 380 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The contribution of the EPIC study to elucidating the role of diet, and other-related factors, on mortality due to cancer was summarized in this study. Dietary factors associated with a lower cancer mortality included: raw vegetables, dietary fiber, the Mediterranean diet, numerous dietary scores, other diet patterns (including low meat eaters, vegetarians/vegans, or fish eaters), dietary intake (or biomarkers) of some vitamins, and intake of lignans. Physical activity and following healthy lifestyle recommendations also reduced cancer mortality risk. In contrast, dietary factors associated with a higher cancer mortality included poor diet quality, alcohol and soft drinks including juice, and to a lesser extent, intake of some fatty acids. Excess weight and obesity also increased the risk of cancer mortality. The results reported may be key to reducing cancer deaths in the population. View this paper.
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Article
Amino Acids and Lipids Associated with Long-Term and Short-Term Red Meat Consumption in the Chinese Population: An Untargeted Metabolomics Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124567 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Red meat (RM) consumption is correlated with multiple health outcomes. This study aims to identify potential biomarkers of RM consumption in the Chinese population and evaluate their predictive ability. We selected 500 adults who participated in the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey [...] Read more.
Red meat (RM) consumption is correlated with multiple health outcomes. This study aims to identify potential biomarkers of RM consumption in the Chinese population and evaluate their predictive ability. We selected 500 adults who participated in the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey and examined their overall metabolome differences by RM consumption by using elastic-net regression, then evaluate the predictivity of a combination of filtered metabolites; 1108 metabolites were detected. In the long-term RM consumption analysis 12,13-DiHOME, androstenediol (3α, 17α) monosulfate 2, and gamma-Glutamyl-2-aminobutyrate were positively associated, 2-naphthol sulfate and S-methylcysteine were negatively associated with long-term high RM consumption, the combination of metabolites prediction model evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 70.4% (95% CI: 59.9–80.9%). In the short-term RM consumption analysis, asparagine, 4-hydroxyproline, and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate were positively associated, behenoyl sphingomyelin (d18:1/22:0) was negatively associated with short-term high RM consumption. Combination prediction model AUC was 75.6% (95% CI: 65.5–85.6%). We identified 10 and 11 serum metabolites that differed according to LT and ST RM consumption which mainly involved branch-chained amino acids, arginine and proline, urea cycle and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism. These metabolites may become a mediator of some chronic diseases among high RM consumers and provide new evidence for RM biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Nutritional Exposure and Nutritional Status)
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Article
Prevalence, Trends, and Socioeconomic Determinants of Coexisting Forms of Malnutrition Amongst Children under Five Years of Age in Pakistan
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4566; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124566 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
In Pakistan, malnutrition is a chronic issue. Concerns regarding coexisting forms of malnutrition (CFM) in an individual child are emerging, as children suffering from CFM have a 4 to 12-fold higher risk of death compared with healthy children. This study assessed the prevalence, [...] Read more.
In Pakistan, malnutrition is a chronic issue. Concerns regarding coexisting forms of malnutrition (CFM) in an individual child are emerging, as children suffering from CFM have a 4 to 12-fold higher risk of death compared with healthy children. This study assessed the prevalence, trends, and socioeconomic determinants of various types of CFM using Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) datasets. Data from children aged 0–5 years old, with complete height and weight information, and valid anthropometry, from all regions of Pakistan (except residents of Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), and non-de jure residents), were included. The prevalence of CFM was 30.6% in 2012–2013 and 21.5% in 2017–2018 PDHS. Both PDHSs reported a significantly higher prevalence of CFM in Sindh and Baluchistan compared with other regions of Pakistan. Improved socioeconomic status significantly reduced the odds of various types of CFM, except the coexistence of underweight with wasting. The high prevalence of CFM in Pakistan can be averted by multisectoral collaboration and by integrating nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
The Chemical Composition and Health-Promoting Effects of the Grewia Species—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4565; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124565 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 617
Abstract
Globally grown and organoleptically appreciated Grewia species are known as sources of bioactive compounds that avert the risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Therefore, in recent years, the genus Grewia has attracted increasing scientific attention. This is the first systematic review which focusses [...] Read more.
Globally grown and organoleptically appreciated Grewia species are known as sources of bioactive compounds that avert the risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Therefore, in recent years, the genus Grewia has attracted increasing scientific attention. This is the first systematic review which focusses primarily on the nutritional composition, phytochemical profile, pharmacological properties, and disease preventative role of Grewia species. The literature published from 1975 to 2021 was searched to retrieve relevant articles from databases such as Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science. Two independent reviewers carried out the screening, selection of articles, and data extraction. Of 815 references, 56 met our inclusion criteria. G. asiatica and G. optiva were the most frequently studied species. We found 167 chemical compounds from 12 Grewia species, allocated to 21 categories. Flavonoids represented 41.31% of the reported bioactive compounds, followed by protein and amino acids (10.7%), fats and fatty acids (9.58%), ash and minerals (6.58%), and non-flavonoid polyphenols (5.96%). Crude extracts, enriched with bioactive compounds, and isolated compounds from the Grewia species show antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective/radioprotective, immunomodulatory, and sedative hypnotic potential. Moreover, antimicrobial properties, improvement in learning and memory deficits, and effectiveness against neurodegenerative ailments are also described within the reviewed article. Nowadays, the side effects of some synthetic drugs and therapies, and bottlenecks in the drug development pathway have directed the attention of researchers and pharmaceutical industries towards the development of new products that are safe, cost-effective, and readily available. However, the application of the Grewia species in pharmaceutical industries is still limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
A Generation Shift in Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Its Association with Biological Markers and Health in Dalmatia, Croatia
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4564; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124564 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in mitigating health issues related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. However, rapid changes in the traditional way of life and the “westernization” of the diet in Mediterranean populations, especially in younger [...] Read more.
Previous studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet in mitigating health issues related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. However, rapid changes in the traditional way of life and the “westernization” of the diet in Mediterranean populations, especially in younger generations, has led to progressive abandonment of healthy dietary patterns. In order to investigate the generation shift in dietary patterns and lifestyle habits in the Mediterranean part of Croatia, we compared two cohorts of 610 women (266 pregnant and 344 non-pregnant) from the same region, but from different age groups. The MDSS score was derived from food frequency questionnaires. The results showed that the young, reproductively active generation (pregnant women) in Dalmatia, Croatia, although having a higher education and socioeconomic status, exhibits a more adverse eating behaviour (lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet) and lifestyle (excessive smoking in pregnancy) than the older population from the same region. Lower MDSS scores across aggregated age groups in both cohorts showed significant association with higher blood lipid levels and higher smoking frequency. In conclusion, Mediterranean diet adherence is associated with biological markers (age, lipid profile) and lifestyle (smoking) in our study, with a more adverse trend observed in the younger generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Diet—New Findings)
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Article
Association between Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Executive Function in Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4563; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124563 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 3113
Abstract
The association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and executive function among children has been less investigated. We aimed to explore this topic. We randomly recruited 6387 children aged 6–12 years from five elementary schools in Guangzhou, China in 2019. Information on frequency and servings [...] Read more.
The association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and executive function among children has been less investigated. We aimed to explore this topic. We randomly recruited 6387 children aged 6–12 years from five elementary schools in Guangzhou, China in 2019. Information on frequency and servings of children’s SSB consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. Children’s executive function was evaluated using parents’ ratings of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), which comprises eight subscales—including inhibit, shift, emotional control, initiate, working memory, plan/organize, organization of materials and monitor, as well as three composite indexes including behavioral regulation index (BRI), metacognition index (MI), and global executive index (GEC). SSB consumption was positively associated with all subscales and composite scores of BRIEF as well as higher risks of elevated executive difficulties, indicating poorer executive function. For example, children who drank SSB ≥2 times/week were related to higher scores of GEC (estimates, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.44, 1.79 to 3.09) compared with those who never drank SSB. The odds ratio of elevated GEC associated with SSB consumption ≥2 times/week was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34, 1.96) than non-consumers. The results of this study indicated that SSB consumption was associated with poorer executive function in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Assessment and Self-Monitoring Using Technology)
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Review
Methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR), the One-Carbon Cycle, and Cardiovascular Risks
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4562; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124562 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 521
Abstract
The 5-10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is vital for cellular homeostasis due to its key functions in the one-carbon cycle, which include methionine and folate metabolism and protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis. The enzyme is responsible for maintaining methionine and homocysteine (Hcy) balance to [...] Read more.
The 5-10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme is vital for cellular homeostasis due to its key functions in the one-carbon cycle, which include methionine and folate metabolism and protein, DNA, and RNA synthesis. The enzyme is responsible for maintaining methionine and homocysteine (Hcy) balance to prevent cellular dysfunction. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, especially C677T, have been associated with various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, inflammatory conditions, diabetes, and vascular disorders. The C677T MTHFR polymorphism is thought to be the most common cause of elevated Hcy levels, which is considered an independent risk factor for CVD. This polymorphism results in an amino acid change from alanine to valine, which prevents optimal functioning of the enzyme at temperatures above 37 °C. Many studies have been conducted to determine whether there is an association between the C677T polymorphism and increased risk for CVD. There is much evidence in favour of this association, while several studies have concluded that the polymorphism cannot be used to predict CVD development or progression. This review discusses current research regarding the C677T polymorphism and its relationship with CVD, inflammation, diabetes, and epigenetic regulation and compares the evidence provided for and against the association with CVD. Full article
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Article
Self-Reported Olfactory Dysfunction and Diet Quality: Findings from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124561 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
We identified associations between self-reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) and dietary attributes in participants aged ≥40 years (n = 6,356) from the nationally representative 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemosensory questionnaire and 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained [...] Read more.
We identified associations between self-reported olfactory dysfunction (OD) and dietary attributes in participants aged ≥40 years (n = 6,356) from the nationally representative 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The chemosensory questionnaire and 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained interviewers. OD was defined as self-report of either smell problems in the last year, worse smell relative to age 25, or perceiving phantom odors. Dietary outcomes included Healthy Eating Index 2015 score (HEI) with adequacy and moderation components (higher scores indicated higher diet quality), dietary diversity, energy density, and intake of major food groups. Survey-weighted linear regression models estimated OD–diet associations, adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Adjusted mean difference (95% CI) between those with versus without OD, showed that adults with OD had significantly lower HEI moderation score (−0.67 (−1.22, −0.11)) and diets higher in energy density (0.06 (0.00, 0.11)), and percent energy from saturated fat (0.47 (0.12, 0.81)), total fat (0.96 (0.22, 1.70)), and added sugar (1.00 (0.33, 1.66)). Age and sex-stratified analyses showed that younger females (40–64 years) primarily accounted for the associations with diet quality and total/saturated fat intake. These findings inform dietary screening and recommendations for adults who report OD, including those experiencing transient or persistent smell loss with COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Taste and Olfaction in Nutrition and Health)
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Review
Effectiveness of Workplace-Based Diet and Lifestyle Interventions on Risk Factors in Workers with Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124560 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Workplace health interventions are essential to improve the health and well-being of workers and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours. We carried out a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of articles measuring the association between workplace dietary interventions and MetS risk. We recovered potentially eligible [...] Read more.
Workplace health interventions are essential to improve the health and well-being of workers and promote healthy lifestyle behaviours. We carried out a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of articles measuring the association between workplace dietary interventions and MetS risk. We recovered potentially eligible studies by searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science, using the terms “Metabolic syndrome” and “Occupational Health”. A total of 311 references were retrieved and 13 documents were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dietary interventions were grouped into six main types: basic education/counselling; specific diet/changes in diet and food intake; behavioural change/coaching; physical exercise; stress management; and internet/social networks. Most programmes included several components. The interventions considered together are beneficial, but the clinical results reflect only a minimal impact on MetS risk. According to the metaregression, the interventions with the greatest impact were those that used coaching techniques and those that promoted physical activity, leading to increased HDL (effect size = 1.58, sig = 0.043; and 2.02, 0.015, respectively) and decreased BMI (effect size = −0.79, sig = −0.009; and −0.77, 0.034, respectively). In contrast, interventions offering information on healthy habits and lifestyle had the contrary effect, leading to increased BMI (effect size = 0.78, sig = 0.006), systolic blood pressure (effect size = 4.85, sig = 0.038) and diastolic blood pressure (effect size = 3.34, sig = 0.001). It is necessary to improve the efficiency of dietary interventions aimed at lowering MetS risk in workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Food and Nutrition and Occupational Health)
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Article
Investigating the Potential for Sulforaphane to Attenuate Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in mdx Dystrophic Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124559 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is an important, yet understudied condition associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with patients reporting bloating, diarrhea, and general discomfort, contributing to a reduced quality of life. In the mdx mouse, the most commonly used mouse model of DMD, studies [...] Read more.
Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is an important, yet understudied condition associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), with patients reporting bloating, diarrhea, and general discomfort, contributing to a reduced quality of life. In the mdx mouse, the most commonly used mouse model of DMD, studies have confirmed GI dysfunction (reported as altered contractility and GI transit through the small and large intestine), associated with increased local and systemic inflammation. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural isothiocyanate with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties via its activation of Nrf2 signalling that has been shown to improve aspects of the skeletal muscle pathology in dystrophic mice. Whether SFN can similarly improve GI function in muscular dystrophy was unknown. Video imaging and spatiotemporal mapping to assess gastrointestinal contractions in isolated colon preparations from mdx and C57BL/10 mice revealed that SFN reduced contraction frequency when administered ex vivo, demonstrating its therapeutic potential to improve GI function in DMD. To confirm this in vivo, four-week-old male C57BL/10 and mdx mice received vehicle (2% DMSO/corn oil) or SFN (2 mg/kg in 2% DMSO/corn oil) via daily oral gavage five days/week for 4 weeks. SFN administration reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm of mdx mice but did not affect other pathological markers. Gene and protein analysis revealed no change in Nrf2 protein expression or activation of Nrf2 signalling after SFN administration and oral SFN supplementation did not improve GI function in mdx mice. Although ex vivo studies demonstrate SFN’s therapeutic potential for reducing colon contractions, in vivo studies should investigate higher doses and/or alternate routes of administration to confirm SFN’s potential to improve GI function in DMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Sex Differences in the Associations of Nutrient Patterns with Total and Regional Adiposity: A Study of Middle-Aged Black South African Men and Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4558; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124558 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns with body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified [...] Read more.
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns with body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified food frequency questionnaire) were measured in black SA men (n = 414) and women (n = 346). Using principal component analysis, nutrient patterns were computed from 25 nutrients in the combined sample. Four nutrient patterns were extracted, explaining 67% of the variance in nutrient intake. Animal and fat, as well as the vitamin C, sugar, and potassium driven patterns, were positively associated with total adiposity. In contrast, the retinol and vitamin B12 pattern was associated with the centralisation of fat. Notably, the strength of the association between the animal-driven nutrient pattern and BMI was greater in men (1.14 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.63–1.66)) than in women (0.81 kg/m2, 95% CI (0.25–1.36)) (Pint = 0.017). In contrast, the plant-driven pattern was associated with higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in women (44 cm2, 95% CI (22–67)) but not men (Pint = 1.54 × 10−4). These differences suggest that although men and women have similar nutrient patterns, their associations with the whole body and regional body fat are different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Validation of a Short Food Frequency Questionnaire to Measure Dietary Intake of a Selection of Micronutrients in Oncology Patients Undergoing Systemic Therapy
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124557 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Dietary intake, specifically consumption of anti-inflammatory micronutrients, can play a role in both cancer initiation as well as the treatment-related outcomes experienced by patients receiving systemic cancer therapy. Increasing research is being conducted to determine whether micronutrient supplementation can aid in altering the [...] Read more.
Dietary intake, specifically consumption of anti-inflammatory micronutrients, can play a role in both cancer initiation as well as the treatment-related outcomes experienced by patients receiving systemic cancer therapy. Increasing research is being conducted to determine whether micronutrient supplementation can aid in altering the tumor microenvironment (TME), reducing inflammatory side effects and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). However, further research pertaining to the adequacy of dietary micronutrient intake is indicated in the oncology cohort. Currently, no tool measuring dietary intakes of various micronutrients exists in the oncology population. In this study, a 21-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measuring intakes of 14 different micronutrients was validated using diet history as the reference method in 112 oncology patients. Bland Altman plot and Passing Bablok regression analysis were conducted to determine agreement between the two methods. The results showed adequate agreement between FFQ and diet history for 12 nutrients including copper, iron, vitamins A, E, and D, alpha linolenic acid (ALA), long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (LC n3-FA), arginine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, leucine, and valine. This 21-item FFQ, which takes an average of 10 min to complete, can be utilized as a quick screening tool to determine adequacy for 12 different micronutrients in place of a diet history. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Review
Energy Metabolism Changes and Dysregulated Lipid Metabolism in Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124556 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Aging women experience hormonal changes, such as decreased estrogen and increased circulating androgen, due to natural or surgical menopause. These hormonal changes make postmenopausal women vulnerable to body composition changes, muscle loss, and abdominal obesity; with a sedentary lifestyle, these changes affect overall [...] Read more.
Aging women experience hormonal changes, such as decreased estrogen and increased circulating androgen, due to natural or surgical menopause. These hormonal changes make postmenopausal women vulnerable to body composition changes, muscle loss, and abdominal obesity; with a sedentary lifestyle, these changes affect overall energy expenditure and basal metabolic rate. In addition, fat redistribution due to hormonal changes leads to changes in body shape. In particular, increased bone marrow-derived adipocytes due to estrogen loss contribute to increased visceral fat in postmenopausal women. Enhanced visceral fat lipolysis by adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase triggers the production of excessive free fatty acids, causing insulin resistance and metabolic diseases. Because genes involved in β-oxidation are downregulated by estradiol loss, excess free fatty acids produced by lipolysis of visceral fat cannot be used appropriately as an energy source through β-oxidation. Moreover, aged women show increased adipogenesis due to upregulated expression of genes related to fat accumulation. As a result, the catabolism of ATP production associated with β-oxidation decreases, and metabolism associated with lipid synthesis increases. This review describes the changes in energy metabolism and lipid metabolic abnormalities that are the background of weight gain in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipocyte Metabolism and Health in Postmenopausal Women)
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Article
Effectiveness of a Theory-Informed Documentary to Reduce Consumption of Meat and Animal Products: Three Randomized Controlled Experiments
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124555 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Several societal issues could be mitigated by reducing global consumption of meat and animal products (MAP). In three randomized, controlled experiments (n=217 to 574), we evaluated the effects of a documentary that presents health, environmental, and animal welfare motivations for [...] Read more.
Several societal issues could be mitigated by reducing global consumption of meat and animal products (MAP). In three randomized, controlled experiments (n=217 to 574), we evaluated the effects of a documentary that presents health, environmental, and animal welfare motivations for reducing MAP consumption. Study 1 assessed the documentary’s effectiveness at reducing reported MAP consumption after 12 days. This study used methodological innovations to minimize social desirability bias, a widespread limitation of past research. Study 2 investigated discrepancies between the results of Study 1 and those of previous studies by further examining the role of social desirability bias. Study 3 assessed the documentary’s effectiveness in a new population anticipated to be more responsive and upon enhancing the intervention content. We found that the documentary did not decrease reported MAP consumption when potential social desirability bias was minimized (Studies 1 and 3). The documentary also did not affect consumption among participants whose demographics suggested they might be more receptive (Study 3). However, the documentary did substantially increase intentions to reduce consumption, consistent with past studies (Studies 2 and 3). Overall, we conclude that some past studies of similar interventions may have overestimated effects due to methodological biases. Novel intervention strategies to reduce MAP consumption may be needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Supplementation Using Liposomes, Cyclodextrins, or Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124554 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency remains a challenge in cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic pancreatitis, and biliary atresia. Liposomes and cyclodextrins can enhance their bioavailability, thus this multi-center randomized placebo-controlled trial compared three-month supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins in the form of liposomes or cyclodextrins to medium-chain [...] Read more.
Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency remains a challenge in cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic pancreatitis, and biliary atresia. Liposomes and cyclodextrins can enhance their bioavailability, thus this multi-center randomized placebo-controlled trial compared three-month supplementation of fat-soluble vitamins in the form of liposomes or cyclodextrins to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in pancreatic-insufficient CF patients. The daily doses were as follows: 2000 IU of retinyl palmitate, 4000 IU of vitamin D3, 200 IU of RRR-α-tocopherol, and 200 µg of vitamin K2 as menaquinone-7, with vitamin E given in soybean oil instead of liposomes. All participants received 4 mg of β-carotene and 1.07 mg of vitamin K1 to ensure compliance with the guidelines. The primary outcome was the change from the baseline of all-trans-retinol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Out of 75 randomized patients (n = 28 liposomes, n = 22 cyclodextrins, and n = 25 MCT), 67 completed the trial (89%; n = 26 liposomes, n = 18 cyclodextrins, and n = 23 MCT) and had a median age of 22 years (IQR 19–28), body mass index of 20.6 kg/m2 [18.4–22.0], and forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 65% (44–84%). The liposomal formulation of vitamin A was associated with the improved evolution of serum all-trans-retinol compared to the control (median +1.7 ng/mL (IQR −44.3–86.1) vs. −38.8 ng/mL (−71.2–6.8), p = 0.028). Cyclodextrins enhanced the bioavailability of vitamin D3 (+9.0 ng/mL (1.0–17.0) vs. +3.0 ng/mL (−4.0–7.0), p = 0.012) and vitamin E (+4.34 µg/mL (0.33–6.52) vs. −0.34 µg/mL (−1.71–2.15), p = 0.010). Liposomes may augment the bioavailability of vitamin A and cyclodextrins may strengthen the supplementation of vitamins D3 and E relative to MCT in pancreatic-insufficient CF but further studies are required to assess liposomal vitamin E (German Clinical Trial Register number DRKS00014295, funded from EU and Norsa Pharma). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and NutritionaI Intervention in Childhood Chronic Diseases)
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Communication
Development and Validation of a Lifestyle Behavior Tool in Overweight and Obese Women through Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124553 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 621
Abstract
There is a paucity of effective intervention tools for overweight/obese women to assess, guide and monitor their eating behavior. This study aimed to develop a lifestyle intervention tool, assess its acceptability and usefulness, and verify its construct validity in overweight/obese women. The 6P [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of effective intervention tools for overweight/obese women to assess, guide and monitor their eating behavior. This study aimed to develop a lifestyle intervention tool, assess its acceptability and usefulness, and verify its construct validity in overweight/obese women. The 6P tool (Portion, Proportion, Pleasure, Phase, Physicality, Psychology) was developed and 15 women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were interviewed to assess its perceived acceptability and usefulness. Subsequently, the revised 6P tool was tested in 46 women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short (IPAQ), and weight were measured at baseline and one-month. Most participants were satisfied with the presentation of the 6P tool (86.8%), and agreed it was useful in guiding healthy eating (81.6%) and raising awareness of eating behavior (97.4%). There were significant improvements in cognitive restraint (p = 0.010) and disinhibition (p = 0.030) (TFEQ), portion size (P1), pleasure behaviors (P3), and total composite 6P score (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant reduction in weight or increase in physical activity. The 6P tool is acceptable and presents with good validity for assessing lifestyle behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Article
Tetrahydrocurcumin Upregulates the Adiponectin-AdipoR Pathway and Improves Insulin Signaling and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Obese Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124552 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Impairment of adiponectin production and function is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are linked to obesity. Studies in animal models have documented the anti-diabetic effects of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Although several possible mechanisms have been proposed, the contribution of [...] Read more.
Impairment of adiponectin production and function is closely associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are linked to obesity. Studies in animal models have documented the anti-diabetic effects of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Although several possible mechanisms have been proposed, the contribution of adiponectin signaling on THC-mediated antihyperglycemic effects remains unknown. Here, we report that adiposity, steatosis, and hyperglycemia were potently attenuated in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic obese mice after they received 20 and 100 mg/kg THC for 14 weeks. THC upregulated UCP-1 in adipose tissue and elevated adiponectin levels in the circulation. THC upregulated the AdipoR1/R2-APPL1-mediated pathway in the liver and skeletal muscle, which contributes to improved insulin signaling, glucose utilization, and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, THC treatment significantly (p < 0.05) preserved islet mass, reduced apoptosis, and restored defective insulin expression in the pancreatic β-cells of diabetic obese mice, which was accompanied by an elevation of AdipoR1 and APPL1. These results demonstrated a potential mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of THC against hyperglycemia via the adiponectin-AdipoR pathway, and thus, may lead to a novel therapeutic use for type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
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Systematic Review
Quality of Life of Cancer Patients Receiving Enteral Nutrition: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124551 - 19 Dec 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Most studies confirm the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life, but some studies indicate an inverse association and its detrimental impacts. However, there are insufficient data on the effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer [...] Read more.
Most studies confirm the beneficial effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life, but some studies indicate an inverse association and its detrimental impacts. However, there are insufficient data on the effects of enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients. This systematic review aimed to describe the influence of applied enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients, based on the results of randomized controlled trials. It was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42021261226) and conducted based on the PRISMA guidelines. The searching procedure was conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as Cochrane Library, and it included studies published until June 2021. It was conducted to select randomized controlled trials assessing the influence of enteral nutrition (compared with the other model of nutrition) on the quality of life of cancer patients. A general number of 761 records were screened and a final number of 16 studies were included in the systematic review. The studies were included and assessed by two independent researchers, while the risk of bias was analyzed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Studies compared patients treated with and without enteral nutrition, patients treated with various methods of enteral nutrition or with enteral diets of various content, as well as patients treated with enteral and parenteral nutrition. Within the included studies, the majority were conducted in patients with cancers located in various parts of the body, or diverse areas within the gastrointestinal system, while some studies were conducted in specific populations of patients with a defined cancer location—esophagus, stomach, or ovary. The duration of applied enteral nutrition within the included studies was diversified—from two weeks or less to half a year or even more. The vast majority of studies used well-known and validated tools to assess the quality of life, either developed for a specific group of head/neck, esophagus/stomach, and ovary cancer patients or developed for more general patient populations. Most studies concerning patients treated with and without enteral nutrition supported applying enteral nutrition, which was concluded in seven studies out of ten (including four studies with a low risk of bias). The other important observations to be emphasized—formulated based on the studies with a low risk of bias—presented the role of oral supportive nutrition guided by a dietitian, as well as the beneficial role of enteral and parenteral nutrition, combined. In spite of a relatively low number of randomized controlled trials assessing the influence of enteral nutrition on the quality of life of cancer patients, which should be considered as a limitation, the results were promising. Most studies supported the positive influence of enteral nutrition on the quality of life, either assessed based on the psychological measures of the quality of life or by considering the other potential determinants (e.g., malnutrition, complications, etc.). Taking this into account, enteral nutrition should be applied whenever possible, both to prevent and treat malnutrition in cancer patients. However, considering the limited number of studies conducted so far, further research conducted in homogenic populations of patients is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases)
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Review
Microbiome and Human Aging: Probiotic and Prebiotic Potentials in Longevity, Skin Health and Cellular Senescence
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124550 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1363
Abstract
The role of the microbiome in human aging is important: the microbiome directly impacts aging through the gastrointestinal system. However, the microbial impact on skin has yet to be fully understood. For example, cellular senescence is an intrinsic aging process that has been [...] Read more.
The role of the microbiome in human aging is important: the microbiome directly impacts aging through the gastrointestinal system. However, the microbial impact on skin has yet to be fully understood. For example, cellular senescence is an intrinsic aging process that has been recently associated with microbial imbalance. With age, cells become senescent in response to stress wherein they undergo irreversible growth arrest while maintaining high metabolic activity. An accumulation of senescent cells has been linked to various aging and chronic pathologies due to an overexpression of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) comprised of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases, lipids and extracellular matrix components. In particular, dermatological disorders may be promoted by senescence as the skin is a common site of accumulation. The gut microbiota influences cellular senescence and skin disruption through the gut-skin axis and secretion of microbial metabolites. Metabolomics can be used to identify and quantify metabolites involved in senescence. Moreover, novel anti-senescent therapeutics are warranted given the poor safety profiles of current pharmaceutical drugs. Probiotics and prebiotics may be effective alternatives, considering the relationship between the microbiome and healthy aging. However, further research on gut composition under a senescent status is needed to develop immunomodulatory therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Metabolites, and Human Health)
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Article
Associations of Caregiver Cooking Skills with Child Dietary Behaviors and Weight Status: Results from the A-CHILD Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124549 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
We examined whether caregiver cooking skills were associated with frequency of home cooking, child dietary behaviors, and child body weight status in Japan. We used cross-sectional data from the 2018 Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty study, targeting primary and junior high [...] Read more.
We examined whether caregiver cooking skills were associated with frequency of home cooking, child dietary behaviors, and child body weight status in Japan. We used cross-sectional data from the 2018 Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty study, targeting primary and junior high school students aged 9–14 years in Adachi City, Tokyo, Japan (n = 5257). Caregiver cooking skills were assessed using a scale with good validity and reliability modified for use in Japan. Child heights and weights derived from school heath checkup data were used to calculate WHO standard body mass index z-scores. After adjusting for potential confounders, caregivers with low-level cooking skills were 4.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.68–6.94) times more likely to have lower frequency of home cooking than those with high level of cooking skills. Children with low-level caregiver cooking skills were 2.81 (95% CI: 2.06–3.84) times more likely to have lower frequency of vegetable intake and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.08–2.82) times more likely to be obese. A low level of caregiver cooking skills was associated with infrequent home cooking, unhealthy child dietary behaviors, and child obesity. Full article
Article
Oral Consumption of Bread from an RNAi Wheat Line with Strongly Silenced Gliadins Elicits No Immunogenic Response in a Pilot Study with Celiac Disease Patients
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124548 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically predisposed, T cell-mediated and autoimmune-like disorder caused by dietary exposure to the storage proteins of wheat and related cereals. A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment available for CD. The celiac immune response mediated by CD4+ [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically predisposed, T cell-mediated and autoimmune-like disorder caused by dietary exposure to the storage proteins of wheat and related cereals. A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment available for CD. The celiac immune response mediated by CD4+ T-cells can be assessed with a short-term oral gluten challenge. This study aimed to determine whether the consumption of bread made using flour from a low-gluten RNAi wheat line (named E82) can activate the immune response in DQ2.5-positive patients with CD after a blind crossover challenge. The experimental protocol included assessing IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms, and measuring gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stool samples. The response of PBMCs was not significant to gliadin and the 33-mer peptide after E82 bread consumption. In contrast, PBMCs reacted significantly to Standard bread. This lack of immune response is correlated with the fact that, after E82 bread consumption, stool samples from patients with CD showed very low levels of GIP, and the symptoms were comparable to those of the GFD. This pilot study provides evidence that bread from RNAi E82 flour does not elicit an immune response after a short-term oral challenge and could help manage GFD in patients with CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Ergogenic Effects of Green Tea Combined with Isolated Soy Protein on Increasing Muscle Mass and Exercise Performance in Resistance-Trained Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124547 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
It is well known that supplementation with high protein after exercise can effectively promote muscle synthesis and repair, while green tea is rich in catechins that have antioxidant effects. We aimed to explore the effects of green tea combined with isolated soy protein [...] Read more.
It is well known that supplementation with high protein after exercise can effectively promote muscle synthesis and repair, while green tea is rich in catechins that have antioxidant effects. We aimed to explore the effects of green tea combined with isolated soy protein on increase muscle mass in resistance-trained mice. A total of 32 male ICR mice (8-weeks old) were divided into four groups (n = 8/group), sedentary control group (SC), isolated soy protein with green tea group (ISPG), resistance training group (RT), isolated soy protein and green tea combine with resistance training group (ISPG + RT). All mice received control or ISPG by oral gavage for four consecutive weeks. Forelimb grip and exhaustive swimming time were used for exercise performance evaluation. In biochemical profile, we analyzed lactate, ammonia, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose and muscle damage index creatine kinase (CK) after exercise as biochemical parameters of exercise fatigue. The grip strength, muscular endurance, and exhaustive swimming time of the ISPG + RT group were significantly increased than other groups (p < 0.05), and also significantly decreased in serum lactate and ammonia levels (p < 0.05, respectively). The ISP + RT group was not only increased in quadriceps weight, (p < 0.05) but also decreased EFP (p < 0.05). We recommend using a 4-week supplementation with ISPG, combined with RT, to increase muscle mass, exercise performance, glycogen storage, and reduce fatigue biochemical parameters after exercise. The benefits of long-term supplementation or application to human supplementation can be further explored in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Supplementation, Endurance Performance and Fatigue)
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Article
The Effect of Obesity Class on the Energetics and Mechanics of Walking
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124546 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Higher mass-normalized net energy cost of walking (NetCw/kg) and mechanical pendular recovery are observed in obese compared to lean adults. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different classes of obesity on the energetics and mechanics of walking and to [...] Read more.
Higher mass-normalized net energy cost of walking (NetCw/kg) and mechanical pendular recovery are observed in obese compared to lean adults. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different classes of obesity on the energetics and mechanics of walking and to explore the relationships between body mass, NetCw/kg and gait mechanics by using principal component analysis (PCA). NetCw/kg and gait mechanics were computed in severely obese (SOG; n = 18, BMI = 40.1 ± 4.4 kg·m−2), moderately obese (MOG; n = 17, BMI = 32.2 ± 1.5 kg·m−2) and normal-weight (NWG; n = 13, BMI = 22.0 ± 1.5 kg·m−2) adults during five walking trials (0.56, 0.83, 1.11, 1.39, 1.67 m·s−1) on an instrumented treadmill. NetCw/kg was significantly higher in SOG compared to NWG (p = 0.019), with no significant difference between SOG and MOG (p = 0.14), nor between MOG and NWG (p = 0.27). Recovery was significantly higher in SOG than in NWG (p = 0.028), with no significant difference between SOG and MOG (p = 0.13), nor between MOG and NWG (p = 0.35). PCA models explained between 17.0% and 44.2% of the data variance. This study showed that: (1) obesity class influences the gait energetics and mechanics; (2) PCA was able to identify two components, showing that the obesity class is associated with lower walking efficiency and better pendulum-like characteristics. Full article
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Review
Placing a Well-Designed Vegan Diet for Slovenes
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124545 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Interest in vegan diets has increased globally as well as in Slovenia. The quantity of new scientific data requires a thorough synthesis of new findings and considerations about the current reserved position of the vegan diet in Slovenia. There is frequently confusion about [...] Read more.
Interest in vegan diets has increased globally as well as in Slovenia. The quantity of new scientific data requires a thorough synthesis of new findings and considerations about the current reserved position of the vegan diet in Slovenia. There is frequently confusion about the benefits of vegetarian diets that are often uncritically passed on to vegan diets and vice versa. This narrative review aims to serve as a framework for a well-designed vegan diet. We present advice on how to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks associated with the vegan diet and lifestyle. We highlight the proper terminology, present the health effects of a vegan diet and emphasize the nutrients of concern. In addition, we provide guidance for implementing a well-designed vegan diet in daily life. We conducted a PubMed search, up to November 2021, for studies on key nutrients (proteins, vitamin B12, vitamin D, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), calcium, iron, zinc, iodine and selenium) in vegan diets. Given the limited amount of scientific evidence, we focus primarily on the general adult population. A well-designed vegan diet that includes a wide variety of plant foods and supplementation of vitamin B12, vitamin D in the winter months and potentially EPA/DHA is safe and nutritionally adequate. It has the potential to maintain and/or to improve health. For physically active adult populations, athletes or individuals with fast-paced lifestyles, there is room for further appropriate supplementation of a conventional vegan diet according to individuals’ health status, needs and goals without compromising their health. A healthy vegan lifestyle, as included in government guidelines for a healthy lifestyle, includes regular physical activity, avoidance of smoking, restriction of alcohol and appropriate sleep hygiene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier: Vegan Diets and Human Health)
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Article
Inverse Association of Plasma Molybdenum with Metabolic Syndrome in a Chinese Adult Population: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124544 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Molybdenum has been found to be associated with metabolic disorders. However, the relationship between molybdenum and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still unclear. A large case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from the baseline of Ezhou-Shenzhen cohort. A total of 5356 subjects [...] Read more.
Molybdenum has been found to be associated with metabolic disorders. However, the relationship between molybdenum and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is still unclear. A large case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from the baseline of Ezhou-Shenzhen cohort. A total of 5356 subjects were included with 2678 MetS and 2678 controls matched by sex and age (±2 years). Medians (IQRs) of plasma molybdenum concentrations were 1.24 μg/L for MetS cases and 1.46 μg/L for controls. After adjustment for multiple covariates, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MetS were 1.00 (reference), 0.71 (0.59–0.84), 0.56 (0.46–0.68), and 0.47 (0.39–0.58) across quartiles of plasma molybdenum, and per SD increment of log-transformed molybdenum was associated with a 23% lower risk of MetS. In the spline analysis, the risk of MetS and its components decreased steeply with increasing molybdenum and followed by a plateau when the cutoff point was observed around 2.0 μg/L. The dose-dependent relationship of molybdenum with MetS remained consistent when considering other essential elements in the Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model. In our study, higher plasma molybdenum was significantly associated with a lower risk of MetS, as well as its components, in a dose-response manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals Metabolism and Human Health)
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Review
Social Jetlag and Related Risks for Human Health: A Timely Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124543 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The term social jetlag is used to describe the discrepancy between biological time, determined by our internal body clock, and social times, mainly dictated by social obligations such as school or work. In industrialized countries, two-thirds of the studying/working population experiences social jetlag, [...] Read more.
The term social jetlag is used to describe the discrepancy between biological time, determined by our internal body clock, and social times, mainly dictated by social obligations such as school or work. In industrialized countries, two-thirds of the studying/working population experiences social jetlag, often for several years. Described for the first time in 2006, a considerable effort has been put into understanding the effects of social jetlag on human physiopathology, yet our understanding of this phenomenon is still very limited. Due to its high prevalence, social jetlag is becoming a primary concern for public health. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding social jetlag, social jetlag associated behavior (e.g., unhealthy eating patterns) and related risks for human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
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Article
A Fermented Milk Product Containing B. lactis CNCM I-2494 Improves the Tolerance of a Plant-Based Diet in Patients with Disorders of Gut–Brain Interactions
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124542 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Healthy, plant-based diets, rich in fermentable residues, may induce gas-related symptoms. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the effects of a fermented milk product, containing probiotics, on the tolerance of a healthy diet in patients with disorders of gut–brain interactions [...] Read more.
Healthy, plant-based diets, rich in fermentable residues, may induce gas-related symptoms. The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the effects of a fermented milk product, containing probiotics, on the tolerance of a healthy diet in patients with disorders of gut–brain interactions (DGBI), complaining of excessive flatulence. In an open design, a 3-day healthy, mostly plant-based diet was administered to patients with DGBI (52 included, 43 completed) before and at the end of 28 days of consumption of a fermented milk product (FMP) containing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria. As compared to a habitual diet, the flatulogenic diet increased the perception of digestive symptoms (flatulence score 7.1 ± 1.6 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9; p < 0.05) and the daily number of anal gas evacuations (22.4 ± 12.5 vs. 16.5 ± 10.2; p < 0.0001). FMP consumption reduced the flatulence sensation score (by –1.6 ± 2.2; p < 0.05) and the daily number of anal gas evacuations (by –5.3 ± 8.2; p < 0.0001). FMP consumption did not significantly alter the overall gut microbiota composition, but some changes in the microbiota correlated with the observed clinical improvement. The consumption of a product containing B. lactis CNCM I-2494 improved the tolerance of a healthy diet in patients with DGBI, and this effect may be mediated, in part, by the metabolic activity of the microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Infant Formula with Added Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membrane and Modified Iron Supports Growth and Normal Iron Status at One Year of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4541; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124541 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Inclusion of bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane (bMFGM) or bMFGM components in infant formulas (IFs) may support healthy brain development. This double-blind, prospective trial evaluated growth, tolerance, and iron status in infants receiving added bMFGM and modified protein, iron, and arachidonic acid (ARA) [...] Read more.
Inclusion of bovine-derived milk fat globule membrane (bMFGM) or bMFGM components in infant formulas (IFs) may support healthy brain development. This double-blind, prospective trial evaluated growth, tolerance, and iron status in infants receiving added bMFGM and modified protein, iron, and arachidonic acid (ARA) concentrations in IF. Healthy term infants were randomized to: control (marketed, routine cow’s milk-based IF/100 kcal: 2.1 g protein, 1.8 mg iron, 34 mg ARA) or INV-MFGM (investigational cow’s milk-based IF/100 kcal: 1.9 g protein, 1.2 mg iron, 25 mg ARA and whey protein-lipid concentrate, 5 g/L (source of bMFGM)). Anthropometrics, stool characteristics, fussiness, and gassiness through day 365 and blood markers of iron status at day 365 were evaluated. The primary outcome was rate of weight gain from 14–120 days of age. Of 373 infants enrolled (control: 191, INV-MFGM: 182), 275 completed the study (control: 141; INV-MFGM: 134). No group differences in growth rate (g/day) from day 14–120 or study discontinuation were detected. Few group differences in growth or parent-reported fussiness, gassiness, or stool characteristics were detected. No group differences were detected in hemoglobin, hematocrit, or incidence of anemia. In healthy term infants, bMFGM and modified protein, iron, and ARA concentrations in a cow’s milk-based IF were well-tolerated, associated with adequate growth throughout the first year of life, and supported normal iron status at one year of age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Article
Threshold of Reactivity and Tolerance to Precautionary Allergen-Labelled Biscuits of Baked Milk- and Egg-Allergic Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124540 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Extremely sensitive food-allergic patients may react to very small amounts of allergenic foods. Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) warns from possible allergenic contaminations. We evaluated by oral food challenge the reactivity to a brand of PAL-labelled milk- and egg-free biscuits of children with severe [...] Read more.
Extremely sensitive food-allergic patients may react to very small amounts of allergenic foods. Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) warns from possible allergenic contaminations. We evaluated by oral food challenge the reactivity to a brand of PAL-labelled milk- and egg-free biscuits of children with severe milk and egg allergy. We explored the ability of proteomic methods to identify minute amounts of milk/egg allergens in such biscuits. Traces of milk and/or egg allergens in biscuits were measured by two different liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The binding of patient’s serum with egg/milk proteins was assessed using immunoblotting. None of the patients reacted to biscuits. Egg and milk proteins were undetectable with a limit of detection of 0.6 µg/g for milk and egg (method A), and of 0.1 and 0.3 µg /g for milk and egg, respectively (method B). The immunoblots did not show milk/egg proteins in the studied biscuits. Milk/egg content of the biscuits is far lower than 4 µg of milk or egg protein per gram of product, the minimal doses considered theoretically capable of causing reactions. With high sensitivity, proteomic assessments predict the harmlessness of very small amount of allergens in foods, and can be used to help avoiding unnecessary PAL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Food Allergy)
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Article
Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Intelligence System to Monitor and Assess Energy and Macronutrient Intake in Hospitalised Older Patients
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4539; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124539 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Malnutrition is common, especially among older, hospitalised patients, and is associated with higher mortality, longer hospitalisation stays, infections, and loss of muscle mass. It is therefore of utmost importance to employ a proper method for dietary assessment that can be used for the [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is common, especially among older, hospitalised patients, and is associated with higher mortality, longer hospitalisation stays, infections, and loss of muscle mass. It is therefore of utmost importance to employ a proper method for dietary assessment that can be used for the identification and management of malnourished hospitalised patients. In this study, we propose an automated Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based system that receives input images of the meals before and after their consumption and is able to estimate the patient’s energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and fatty acids intake. The system jointly segments the images into the different food components and plate types, estimates the volume of each component before and after consumption, and calculates the energy and macronutrient intake for every meal, based on the kitchen’s menu database. Data acquired from an acute geriatric hospital as well as from our previous study were used for the fine-tuning and evaluation of the system. The results from both our system and the hospital’s standard procedure were compared to the estimations of experts. Agreement was better with the system, suggesting that it has the potential to replace standard clinical procedures with a positive impact on time spent directly with the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Article
Innovative Application of Phytochemicals from Fermented Legumes and Spices/Herbs Added in Extruded Snacks
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124538 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
A trend related to adding legume seeds to various products has been observed. This work aimed to use fermented red bean/broad bean seeds and their hulls to produce extruded snacks with more beneficial nutritional properties and good sensory quality. Extruded snacks containing fermented [...] Read more.
A trend related to adding legume seeds to various products has been observed. This work aimed to use fermented red bean/broad bean seeds and their hulls to produce extruded snacks with more beneficial nutritional properties and good sensory quality. Extruded snacks containing fermented ground seeds (50%) or hull (10%) of red bean/broad bean and corn grits with the addition of selected herbs/spices (0.5%) were prepared. The chemical composition, phenolic profile, antioxidant activity, and sensory quality were analysed. The results showed that the protein content ranged from 9 to 22.9 g 100 g−1, phenolic compounds ranged from 3.97 to 12.80 mg 100 g−1 (with the addition of herbs/spices, even up to 62.88 mg 100 g−1), and antioxidant activities ranged from 4.32 to 10.23 Trolox g−1 (ABTS assay), depending on the type of fermented materials. The addition of ground seeds/hull did not influence the consumer desirability, whereas the addition of selected herbs/spices, particularly lovage, increased it. The application of fermented red bean and broad bean seeds and their hulls, as part of the assumptions of the planetary diet, enabled enrichment of extruded corn products, which are often consumed by vegans and vegetarians, with nutritionally valuable ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Legumes for Human Nutrition)
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