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Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 2 (February 2021) – 430 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This review provides an overview of the early life factors that affect gut microbiota colonization and maturation, neuronal and immune system development, as well as focusing on the impact of early life nutrition from pre-conception up to 3 years of age. During this formative time, microbes interact with the host to program a variety of systems determining early life development and fine-tunning the balance between health and disease. Early life microbiota is dynamic and highly sensitive to disruptions, some of which have been linked with neurodevelopmental diseases and immune-related pathologies. More research is needed in order to untangle the complex relationship among early life nutrition, intestinal microbes and the brain during critical temporal windows of development. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Preoperative Total Proteins and Glycated Hemoglobin on Recurrences after Early Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 711; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020711 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Background: The outcome of colorectal cancer is mostly based on TNM classification. There are several factors determining that patients with the same tumoral stage present different outcomes. The nutritional status has been related to the immunological response and may affect the oncologic results. [...] Read more.
Background: The outcome of colorectal cancer is mostly based on TNM classification. There are several factors determining that patients with the same tumoral stage present different outcomes. The nutritional status has been related to the immunological response and may affect the oncologic results. The purpose of this study was to determine if preoperative nutritional parameters may predict the oncologic outcome in patients with early colorectal cancer. Methods: A prospective observational study of patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer was performed with stage I. Preoperative nutritional assessment included glycemic and lipid profiles, total proteins, and albumin levels. These parameters were correlated with tumoral recurrence during a follow-up of at least 24 months. Results: During the period of study, 744 patients were operated on and 228 (30.6%) followed the inclusion criteria for this study. Recurrence rate was 5.7% (13 patients). Patients with hypoproteinemia showed a 7.8-fold greater risk of recurrence during the first 24 months after surgery [OR 7.8 (CI95% 1.3–48), p = 0.012]. Patients with glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) > 6.2% showed a 2.3 increased risk of recurrence [OR 2.3 (CI95% 1.1–4.7; p = 0.01]. Conclusions: Preoperative values of total proteins and HbA1c correlate with the recurrence rate in early colorectal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Finds Increased Blood Levels of All Forms of Ghrelin in Both Restricting and Binge-Eating/Purging Subtypes of Anorexia Nervosa
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 709; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020709 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric condition associated with high mortality and chronicity. The hunt for state, trait, subtyping, and prognostic biomarkers is ongoing and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and its different forms, acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, have been proposed to [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe psychiatric condition associated with high mortality and chronicity. The hunt for state, trait, subtyping, and prognostic biomarkers is ongoing and the orexigenic hormone ghrelin and its different forms, acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin, have been proposed to be increased in AN, especially in the restrictive subtype. A systematic literature search was performed using established databases up to 30 November 2020. Forty-nine studies met inclusion criteria for cross-sectional and longitudinal meta-analyses on total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin, and desacyl ghrelin. All forms of ghrelin were increased in the acute stage of anorexia nervosa during fasting compared to healthy controls. Previous notions on differences in ghrelin levels between AN subtypes were not supported by current data. In addition, a significant decrease in total ghrelin was observed pre-treatment to follow-up. However, total ghrelin levels at follow-up were still marginally elevated compared to healthy controls, whereas for acyl ghrelin, no overall effect of treatment was observed. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up designs and only few data on long-term recovered patients, longitudinal results should be interpreted with caution. While the first steps towards a biomarker in acute AN have been completed, the value of ghrelin as a potential indicator of treatment success or recovery status or its use in subtype differentiation are yet to be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating and Feeding Disorders with Restrictive Food Intake)
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Open AccessEditorial
Advances and Future Directions in the Clinical Utility of Food Addiction
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020708 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 527
Abstract
The body of research examining the validity of food addiction and eating addiction far exceeds the research examining their clinical utility [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Clinical Utility of Food Addiction and Eating Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Accidental Consumption of Aspartame in Phenylketonuria: Patient Experiences
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 707; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020707 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Aspartame is a phenylalanine containing sweetener, added to foods and drinks, which is avoided in phenylketonuria (PKU). However, the amount of phenylalanine provided by aspartame is unidentifiable from food and drinks labels. We performed a cross-sectional online survey aiming to examine the accidental [...] Read more.
Aspartame is a phenylalanine containing sweetener, added to foods and drinks, which is avoided in phenylketonuria (PKU). However, the amount of phenylalanine provided by aspartame is unidentifiable from food and drinks labels. We performed a cross-sectional online survey aiming to examine the accidental aspartame consumption in PKU. 206 questionnaires (58% female) were completed. 55% of respondents (n = 114) were adults with PKU or their parent/carers and 45% (n = 92) were parents/carers of children with PKU. 74% (n = 152/206) had consumed food/drinks containing aspartame. Repeated accidental aspartame consumption was common and more frequent in children (p < 0.0001). The aspartame containing food/drinks accidentally consumed were fizzy drinks (68%, n = 103/152), fruit squash (40%, n = 61/152), chewing gum (30%, n = 46/152), flavoured water (25%, n = 38/152), ready to drink fruit squash cartons (23%, n = 35/152) and sports drinks (21%, n = 32/152). The main reasons described for accidental consumption, were manufacturers’ changing recipes (81%, n = 123/152), inability to check the ingredients in pubs/restaurants/vending machines (59%, n = 89/152) or forgetting to check the label (32%, n = 49/152). 23% (n= 48/206) had been prescribed medicines containing aspartame and 75% (n = 36/48) said that medicines were not checked by medics when prescribed. 85% (n = 164/192) considered the sugar tax made accidental aspartame consumption more likely. Some of the difficulties for patients were aspartame identification in drinks consumed in restaurants, pubs, vending machines (77%, n = 158/206); similarities in appearance of aspartame and non-aspartame products (62%, n = 127/206); time consuming shopping/checking labels (56%, n = 115/206); and unclear labelling (55%, n = 114/206). These issues caused anxiety for the person with PKU (52%, n = 106/206), anxiety for parent/caregivers (46%, n = 95/206), guilt for parent/carers (42%, n = 87/206) and social isolation (42%, n = 87/206). It is important to understand the impact of aspartame and legislation such as the sugar tax on people with PKU. Policy makers and industry should ensure that the quality of life of people with rare conditions such as PKU is not compromised through their action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Therapy and Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria)
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Open AccessReview
Evidence for the Contribution of Gut Microbiota to Age-Related Anabolic Resistance
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 706; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020706 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 824
Abstract
Globally, people 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the population. Physiological manifestations of the aging process include undesirable changes in body composition, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness, and reductions in skeletal muscle size and function (i.e., sarcopenia) that [...] Read more.
Globally, people 65 years of age and older are the fastest growing segment of the population. Physiological manifestations of the aging process include undesirable changes in body composition, declines in cardiorespiratory fitness, and reductions in skeletal muscle size and function (i.e., sarcopenia) that are independently associated with mortality. Decrements in muscle protein synthetic responses to anabolic stimuli (i.e., anabolic resistance), such as protein feeding or physical activity, are highly characteristic of the aging skeletal muscle phenotype and play a fundamental role in the development of sarcopenia. A more definitive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this age-associated reduction in anabolic responsiveness will help to guide promyogenic and function promoting therapies. Recent studies have provided evidence in support of a bidirectional gut-muscle axis with implications for aging muscle health. This review will examine how age-related changes in gut microbiota composition may impact anabolic response to protein feeding through adverse changes in protein digestion and amino acid absorption, circulating amino acid availability, anabolic hormone production and responsiveness, and intramuscular anabolic signaling. We conclude by reviewing literature describing lifestyle habits suspected to contribute to age-related changes in the microbiome with the goal of identifying evidence-informed strategies to preserve microbial homeostasis, anabolic sensitivity, and skeletal muscle with advancing age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Systemic Sclerosis and Periodontitis with Vitamin D Levels
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 705; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020705 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to analyze the association among systemic sclerosis (SSc), periodontitis (PT); we also evaluated the impact of PT and SSc on vitamin D levels. Moreover, we tested the association with potential confounders. A total of 38 patients [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the association among systemic sclerosis (SSc), periodontitis (PT); we also evaluated the impact of PT and SSc on vitamin D levels. Moreover, we tested the association with potential confounders. A total of 38 patients with SSc, 40 subjects with PT, 41 subjects with both PT and SSc, and 41 healthy controls were included in the study. The median vitamin D levels in PT subject were 19.1 (17.6–26.8) ng/mL, while SSc + PT group had vitamin d levels of 15.9 (14.7–16.9) ng/mL, significantly lower with respect to SSc patients (21.1 (15.4–22.9) ng/mL) and to healthy subjects (30.5 (28.8–32.3) ng/mL) (p < 0.001). In all subjects, vitamin D was negatively associated with c-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001) and with probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque score (PI) (p < 0.001 for all parameters) and positively related to the number of teeth (p < 0.001). Moreover, univariate regression analysis demonstrated an association among high low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.021), CRP (p = 0.014), and PT (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of vitamin D. The multivariate regression analysis showed that PT (p = 0.011) and CRP (p = 0.031) were both predictors of vitamin D levels. Subjects with PT and SSc plus PT had significant lower vitamin D values with respect to SSc and to healthy subjects. In addition, PT seems negatively associated with levels of vitamin D in all analyzed patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Vitamin D Deficiency Cause Gender Specific Alterations of Renal Arterial Function in a Rodent Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020704 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency shows positive correlation to cardiovascular risk, which might be influenced by gender specific features. Our goal was to examine the effect of Vitamin D supplementation and Vitamin D deficiency in male and female rats on an important hypertension target organ, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency shows positive correlation to cardiovascular risk, which might be influenced by gender specific features. Our goal was to examine the effect of Vitamin D supplementation and Vitamin D deficiency in male and female rats on an important hypertension target organ, the renal artery. Female and male Wistar rats were fed with Vitamin D reduced chow for eight weeks to induce hypovitaminosis. Another group of animals received normal chow with further supplementation to reach optimal serum vitamin levels. Isolated renal arteries of Vitamin D deficient female rats showed increased phenylephrine-induced contraction. In all experimental groups, both indomethacin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition (NS398) decreased the phenylephrine-induced contraction. Angiotensin II-induced contraction was pronounced in Vitamin D supplemented males. In both Vitamin D deficient groups, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was impaired. In the female Vitamin D supplemented group NS398, in males the indomethacin caused reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Increased elastic fiber density was observed in Vitamin D deficient females. The intensity of eNOS immunostaining was decreased in Vitamin D deficient females. The density of AT1R staining was the highest in the male Vitamin D deficient group. Although Vitamin D deficiency induced renal vascular dysfunction in both sexes, female rats developed more extensive impairment that was accompanied by enzymatic and structural changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Olfactory Function in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Is Associated with Their Body Mass Index and Polymorphism in the Odor Binding-Protein (OBPIIa) Gene
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 703; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020703 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Smell strongly contributes to food choice and intake, influencing energy balance and body weight; its reduction or loss has been related to malnutrition problems. Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are underweight, while others [...] Read more.
Smell strongly contributes to food choice and intake, influencing energy balance and body weight; its reduction or loss has been related to malnutrition problems. Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are underweight, while others are overweight. Some studies suggest that changes in eating habits could be linked to specific disorders of the olfactory functions. We assessed the olfactory performance in 199 subjects (healthy control (HC) n = 99, IBD n = 100), based on the olfactory Threshold, Discrimination and Identification score (TDI score), measured with the “Sniffin’ Sticks” test. Subjects were genotyped for the rs2590498 polymorphism of the OBPIIa gene. IBD patients showed both a slightly, but significantly, lower olfactory function and a higher BMI compared to HC subjects. Threshold (in both population) and Discrimination (in IBD patients) olfactory score were affected by the OBPIIa genotype. BMI was influenced by both health status and OBPIIa genotype. A lower olfactory function may delay the satiety sensation and thus increase meal duration and body weight in IBD patients. However, the AA genotype of the OBPIIa seems to “protect” IBD patients from more severe olfactory dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
The Sum of Plasma Fatty Acids iso16:0, iso17:0, trans11-18:1, cis9, trans11-CLA, and cis6-18:1 as Biomarker of Dairy Intake Established in an Intervention Study and Validated in the EPIC Cohort of Gipuzkoa
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 702; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020702 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
The questioned reliability of 15:0, 17:0, and trans9-16:1 acids as biomarkers of dairy fat intake also questions the relationship between the intake of these products and their health effects. Two studies were conducted in the same geographical region. In an intervention study, [...] Read more.
The questioned reliability of 15:0, 17:0, and trans9-16:1 acids as biomarkers of dairy fat intake also questions the relationship between the intake of these products and their health effects. Two studies were conducted in the same geographical region. In an intervention study, volunteers followed a diet rich in dairy products followed by a diet without dairy products. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids (FA) were analyzed, and their correlations with dairy product intakes were tested. The FA biomarkers selected were validated in the Gipuzkoa cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) observational study. The correlation coefficients between plasma concentrations of iso16:0, iso17:0, trans11-18:1, cis9, trans11-18:2, and cis6-18:1 and the dairy fat ingested are similar in both studies, indicating that their concentration increases by 0.8 µmol/L per gram of dairy fat ingested. The biomarkers are positively related to plasma triglycerides (r = 0.324 and 0.204 in the intervention and observational studies, respectively) and total cholesterol (r = 0.459 and 0.382), but no correlation was found between the biomarkers and atherogenicity indexes. In conclusion, the sum of the plasma concentration of the selected FAs can be used as biomarkers of dairy product consumption. A linear relationship exists between their plasma concentrations and ruminant product intake. These biomarkers allow for obtaining consistent relationships between dairy intake and plasma biochemical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Vitamin C in Prophylaxis and Treatment of Gout—A Literature Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 701; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020701 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Gout, known as “the disease of the kings”, is the most frequent type of arthritis. It results from sustained hyperuricemia that leads to monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint structures and soft tissue. Environmental factors such as diet affect the incidence of gout; [...] Read more.
Gout, known as “the disease of the kings”, is the most frequent type of arthritis. It results from sustained hyperuricemia that leads to monosodium urate crystal deposition in joint structures and soft tissue. Environmental factors such as diet affect the incidence of gout; there is a known relationship between the occurrence of an acute attack of gout and the consumption of alcohol and meat; and a low purine diet is a widely recognized nonpharmacological method of supplementing the treatment and preventing recurrence of arthritis. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the role of vitamin C in prevention and treatment of gout. A PubMed/Medline database search on the role of vitamin C in purine metabolism was done. Reports from in vitro and animal studies seem to be promising and to allow explanation of the physiological relationship between vitamin C and uric acid. Most epidemiological studies indicate a significant correlation between high vitamin C intake and lower serum uric acid levels. Despite promising observations, there are few observational and interventional studies, and their results do not clearly define the benefits of a high daily intake of vitamin C in preventing the development and recurrence of gout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 700; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020700 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between 1992–1996 and followed up for a mean (±SD) of 21.6 (±3.4) years. A total of 459 incident cases of dementia were ascertained through expert revision of medical records. Data on habitual diet was collected through a validated diet history method to assess adherence to the relative Mediterranean Diet (rMED) score. Hazard ratios (HR) of dementia by rMED levels (low, medium and high adherence levels: ≤6, 7–10 and ≥11 points, respectively) were estimated using multivariable Cox models, whereas time-dependent effects were evaluated using flexible parametric Royston-Parmar (RP) models. Results of the fully adjusted model showed that high versus low adherence to the categorical rMED score was associated with a 20% (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.60–1.06) lower risk of dementia overall and HR of dementia was 8% (HR = 0.92, 0.85–0.99, p = 0.021) lower for each 2-point increment of the continuous rMED score. By sub-types, a favorable association was also found in women for non-AD (HR per 2-points = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.62–0.89), while not statistically significant in men for AD (HR per 2-points = 0.88, 0.76–1.01). The association was stronger in participants with lower education. In conclusion, in this large prospective cohort study MD was inversely associated with dementia incidence after accounting for major cardiovascular risk factors. The results differed by dementia sub-type, sex, and education but there was no significant evidence of effect modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet on Vascular Function and Hormones)
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Open AccessReview
Nutritional Components in Western Diet Versus Mediterranean Diet at the Gut Microbiota–Immune System Interplay. Implications for Health and Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020699 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The most prevalent diseases of our time, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer) are rising worldwide. All of them share the condition of an “inflammatory disorder”, with impaired immune functions frequently caused or accompanied [...] Read more.
The most prevalent diseases of our time, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (including obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer) are rising worldwide. All of them share the condition of an “inflammatory disorder”, with impaired immune functions frequently caused or accompanied by alterations in gut microbiota. These multifactorial maladies also have in common malnutrition related to physiopathology. In this context, diet is the greatest modulator of immune system–microbiota crosstalk, and much interest, and new challenges, are arising in the area of precision nutrition as a way towards treatment and prevention. It is a fact that the westernized diet (WD) is partly responsible for the increased prevalence of NCDs, negatively affecting both gut microbiota and the immune system. Conversely, other nutritional approaches, such as Mediterranean diet (MD), positively influence immune system and gut microbiota, and is proposed not only as a potential tool in the clinical management of different disease conditions, but also for prevention and health promotion globally. Thus, the purpose of this review is to determine the regulatory role of nutritional components of WD and MD in the gut microbiota and immune system interplay, in order to understand, and create awareness of, the influence of diet over both key components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Microbiota as Modulators of Immunometabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods Increases the Likelihood of Having Obesity in Korean Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 698; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020698 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 605
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity among Korean adults. We used the data of 7364 participants (men 3219, women 4145) aged 19–64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2016–2018. Food [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity among Korean adults. We used the data of 7364 participants (men 3219, women 4145) aged 19–64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2016–2018. Food items were classified using the NOVA food classification system, depending on the extent and purpose of food processing: (1) unprocessed or minimally processed foods, (2) processed culinary ingredients, (3) processed foods, and (4) ultra-processed foods. Consumption of ultra-processed foods accounted for 26.8% of the total energy intake. After adjusting for potential confounders including sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, subjects with the highest consumption of ultra-processed foods (fourth quartile of % energy intake from ultra-processed foods) had 0.61 kg/m2 higher body mass index (BMI; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.99, p-trend 0.0047), 1.34 cm higher waist circumference (WC; 95% CI 0.35–2.34, p-trend 0.0146), 51% higher odds of being obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2; odds ratio [OR] 1.51, 95% CI 1.14–1.99, p-trend 0.0037), and 64% higher odds of abdominal obesity (men: WC ≥ 90 cm, women: WC ≥ 85 cm; OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.24–2.16, p-trend 0.0004) than those with the lowest consumption (first quartile) among women. However, no association was found in men. These findings provide evidence that high consumption of ultra-processed foods is positively associated with obesity in Korean women. Further studies with a large-scale cohort or intervention trial are needed to identify the mechanism of associations between consumption of ultra-processed foods and health-related outcomes including obesity in Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessReview
Salt and Sugar: Two Enemies of Healthy Blood Pressure in Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 697; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020697 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The prevalence of essential arterial hypertension in children and adolescents has grown considerably in the last few decades, making this disease a major clinical problem in the pediatric age. The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is multifactorial, with one of the components being represented [...] Read more.
The prevalence of essential arterial hypertension in children and adolescents has grown considerably in the last few decades, making this disease a major clinical problem in the pediatric age. The pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is multifactorial, with one of the components being represented by incorrect eating habits. In particular, excessive salt and sugar intake can contribute to the onset of hypertension in children, particularly in subjects with excess weight. Babies have an innate predisposition for sweet taste, while that for salty taste manifests after a few weeks. The recent modification of dietary styles and the current very wide availability of salt and sugar has led to an exponential increase in the consumption of these two nutrients. The dietary intake of salt and sugar in children is in fact much higher than that recommended by health agencies. The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanisms via which an excessive dietary intake of salt and sugar can contribute to the onset of arterial hypertension in children and to show the most important clinical studies that demonstrate the association between these two nutrients and arterial hypertension in pediatric age. Correct eating habits are essential for the prevention and nondrug treatment of essential hypertension in children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Factors and Hypertension)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Bosch-Sierra, N., et al. Effect of Fibre-Enriched Orange Juice on Postprandial Glycaemic Response and Satiety in Healthy Individuals: An Acute, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3014
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 696; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020696 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 514
Abstract
The authors have requested that the following changes be made to their paper [...] Full article
Open AccessReview
Common Genetic Variations Involved in the Inter-Individual Variability of Circulating Cholesterol Concentrations in Response to Diets: A Narrative Review of Recent Evidence
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 695; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020695 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 550
Abstract
The number of nutrigenetic studies dedicated to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulating blood lipid profiles in response to dietary interventions has increased considerably over the last decade. However, the robustness of the evidence-based science supporting the area remains to be [...] Read more.
The number of nutrigenetic studies dedicated to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulating blood lipid profiles in response to dietary interventions has increased considerably over the last decade. However, the robustness of the evidence-based science supporting the area remains to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to present recent findings concerning the effects of interactions between SNPs in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport, and dietary intakes or interventions on circulating cholesterol concentrations, which are causally involved in cardiovascular diseases and established biomarkers of cardiovascular health. We identified recent studies (2014–2020) that reported significant SNP–diet interactions in 14 cholesterol-related genes (NPC1L1, ABCA1, ABCG5, ABCG8, APOA1, APOA2, APOA5, APOB, APOE, CETP, CYP7A1, DHCR7, LPL, and LIPC), and which replicated associations observed in previous studies. Some studies have also shown that combinations of SNPs could explain a higher proportion of variability in response to dietary interventions. Although some findings still need replication, including in larger and more diverse study populations, there is good evidence that some SNPs are consistently associated with differing circulating cholesterol concentrations in response to dietary interventions. These results could help clinicians provide patients with more personalized dietary recommendations, in order to lower their risk for cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview
The Antiviral Properties of Human Milk: A Multitude of Defence Tools from Mother Nature
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 694; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020694 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 735
Abstract
The anti-infective properties of breast milk have been known for decades. In recent years, an increasing number of papers have described the variety of bioactive compounds that are present in breast milk with varying degrees of antiviral activity. However, to date, the totality [...] Read more.
The anti-infective properties of breast milk have been known for decades. In recent years, an increasing number of papers have described the variety of bioactive compounds that are present in breast milk with varying degrees of antiviral activity. However, to date, the totality of the properties of these compounds is not fully understood and, above all, their synergistic interaction is not yet known. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge about the antiviral compounds in breast milk, both with specific and non-specific action against pathogens. Due to the current pandemic situation from SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2), research has focused on a multitude of potential antiviral substances, taking breast milk as a biological model of reference. Future research is needed to expand the knowledge of these compounds, which will hopefully assist in the development of therapies applicable even at later ages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Infant Feeding)
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Open AccessArticle
Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Gut Bifidobacteria in Term Infants Fed an Infant Formula Containing High sn-2 Palmitate: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020693 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
A few studies suggested high stereo-specifically numbered (sn)-2 palmitate in a formula might favor the gut Bifidobacteria of infants. The initial colonization and subsequent development of gut microbiota in early life might be associated with development and later life functions of the central [...] Read more.
A few studies suggested high stereo-specifically numbered (sn)-2 palmitate in a formula might favor the gut Bifidobacteria of infants. The initial colonization and subsequent development of gut microbiota in early life might be associated with development and later life functions of the central nervous system via the microbiota–gut–brain axis, such as children with autism. This study aims to assess the hypothesized effect of increasing the amount of palmitic acid esterified in the sn-2 position in infant formula on neurodevelopment in healthy full-term infants and to explore the association of this effect with the altered gut Bifidobacteria. One hundred and ninety-nine infants were enrolled in this cluster randomized clinical trial: 66 breast-fed (BF group) and 133 formula-fed infants who were clustered and randomly assigned to receive formula containing high sn-2 palmitate (sn-2 group, n = 66) or low sn-2 palmitate (control group, n = 67), where 46.3% and 10.3% of the palmitic acid (PA) was sn-2-palmitate, respectively. Infants’ neurodevelopmental outcomes were measured by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, third edition (ASQ-3). Stool samples were collected for the analysis of Bifidobacteria (Trial registration number: ChiCTR1800014479). At week 16, the risk of scoring close to the threshold for fine motor skills (reference: scoring above the typical development threshold) was significantly lower in the sn-2 group than the control group after adjustment for the maternal education level (p = 0.036) but did not differ significantly versus the BF group (p = 0.513). At week 16 and week 24, the sn-2 group (week 16: 15.7% and week 24: 15.6%) had a significantly higher relative abundance of fecal Bifidobacteria than the control group (week 16: 6.6%, p = 0.001 and week 24:11.2%, p = 0.028) and did not differ from the BF group (week 16: 14.4%, p = 0.674 and week 24: 14.9%, p = 0.749). At week 16, a higher relative abundance of Bifidobacteria was associated with the decreased odds of only one domain scoring close to the threshold in the formula-fed infants group (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.947 (0.901–0.996)). Elevating the sn-2 palmitate level in the formula improved infants’ development of fine motor skills, and the beneficial effects of high sn-2 palmitate on infant neurodevelopment was associated with the increased gut Bifidobacteria level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gut-Brain Axis)
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Open AccessReview
Nutrient Requirements during Pregnancy and Lactation
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 692; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020692 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1045
Abstract
A woman’s nutritional status during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not only critical for her health, but also for that of future generations. Nutritional requirements during pregnancy differ considerably from those of non-pregnant women. Thus, a personalized approach to nutritional advice is recommended. Currently, [...] Read more.
A woman’s nutritional status during pregnancy and breastfeeding is not only critical for her health, but also for that of future generations. Nutritional requirements during pregnancy differ considerably from those of non-pregnant women. Thus, a personalized approach to nutritional advice is recommended. Currently, some countries recommend routine supplementation for all pregnant women, while others recommend supplements only when necessary. Maternal physiological adaptations, as well as nutritional requirements during pregnancy and lactation, will be reviewed in the literature examining the impacts of dietary changes. All of these data have been studied deeply to facilitate a discussion on dietary supplement use and the recommended doses of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the knowledge in the scientific literature on the current recommendations for the intake of the most common micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Taking into account these considerations, we examine minerals, vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acid requirements. Finally, we conclude by discussing the potential benefits of each form of supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micronutrients and Pregnancy)
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Open AccessReview
The Medical Benefits of Vitamin K2 on Calcium-Related Disorders
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020691 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 911
Abstract
Background: Due to the potentially crucial role of vitamin K2 in calcium metabolism, a deficit can disrupt many mechanisms, resulting in an array of different issues, such as broken bones, stiff arteries and poor fertility. Although there has been existing research, the [...] Read more.
Background: Due to the potentially crucial role of vitamin K2 in calcium metabolism, a deficit can disrupt many mechanisms, resulting in an array of different issues, such as broken bones, stiff arteries and poor fertility. Although there has been existing research, the potential of vitamin K2 as a treatment for conditions including cerebral palsy, parathyroid disease, heart disease and gastrointestinal disease is unknown. This review discusses the biochemistry of vitamin K and the metabolism of calcium, followed by an analysis of the current literature available on vitamin K2 and its prospects. Methods: Using public libraries including PubMed and Wiley, we searched for existing research on the metabolism and use of vitamin K2 that has been conducted in the preceding two decades. Results: Data indicated that vitamin K2 had a positive impact on osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, parathyroid disorders, cerebral palsy and sperm motility. Conclusion: Due to the existence of confounding variables and limitations in the quality and volume of research conducted, further investigation must be done to see whether the beneficial effects seen are reproducible and must assess the viability of vitamin K2 as treatment in isolation for these conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview
Crosstalk between Gut and Brain in Alzheimer’s Disease: The Role of Gut Microbiota Modulation Strategies
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020690 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The gut microbiota (GM) represents a diverse and dynamic population of microorganisms and about 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells that dwell in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies suggest that the GM can influence the health of the host, and several factors can modify the [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota (GM) represents a diverse and dynamic population of microorganisms and about 100 trillion symbiotic microbial cells that dwell in the gastrointestinal tract. Studies suggest that the GM can influence the health of the host, and several factors can modify the GM composition, such as diet, drug intake, lifestyle, and geographical locations. Gut dysbiosis can affect brain immune homeostasis through the microbiota–gut–brain axis and can play a key role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The relationship between gut dysbiosis and AD is still elusive, but emerging evidence suggests that it can enhance the secretion of lipopolysaccharides and amyloids that may disturb intestinal permeability and the blood–brain barrier. In addition, it can promote the hallmarks of AD, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, amyloid-beta formation, insulin resistance, and ultimately the causation of neural death. Poor dietary habits and aging, along with inflammatory responses due to dysbiosis, may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Thus, GM modulation through diet, probiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation could represent potential therapeutics in AD. In this review, we discuss the role of GM dysbiosis in AD and potential therapeutic strategies to modulate GM in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Cognition, Behaviour and Alzheimer's Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Sodium Intake and Incidence of Diabetes Complications in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes—Analysis of Data from the Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Study (J-EDIT)
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 689; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020689 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 634
Abstract
This study investigates the associations between sodium intake and diabetes complications in a nationwide cohort of elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 65–85. Data from 912 individuals regarding their dietary intake at baseline is analyzed and assessed by the Food Frequency [...] Read more.
This study investigates the associations between sodium intake and diabetes complications in a nationwide cohort of elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes aged 65–85. Data from 912 individuals regarding their dietary intake at baseline is analyzed and assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups. Primary outcomes are times to diabetic retinopathy, overt nephropathy, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality during six years. We find that mean sodium intake in quartiles ranges from 2.5 g to 5.9 g/day. After adjustment for confounders, no significant associations are observed between sodium intake quartiles and incidence of diabetes complications and mortality, except for a significant trend for an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.039). Among patients whose vegetable intake was less than the average of 268.7 g, hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetic retinopathy in patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.31–2.41), 2.61 (1.00–6.83), and 3.70 (1.37–10.02), respectively. Findings indicate that high sodium intake under conditions of low vegetable intake is associated with an elevated incidence of diabetic retinopathy in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Older Adults with Diabetes)
Open AccessArticle
Gut Microbiome-Based Analysis of Lipid A Biosynthesis in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An In Silico Evaluation
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 688; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020688 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
The link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the gut microbiome has received much attention, with special focus on gut–brain-axis immunological imbalances. Gastrointestinal problems are one of the major symptoms of ASD and are thought to be related to immune dysregulation. Therefore, in [...] Read more.
The link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the gut microbiome has received much attention, with special focus on gut–brain-axis immunological imbalances. Gastrointestinal problems are one of the major symptoms of ASD and are thought to be related to immune dysregulation. Therefore, in silico analysis was performed on mined data from 36 individuals with ASD and 21 control subjects, with an emphasis on lipid A endotoxin-producing bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS) metabolic pathways. Analysis of enzyme distribution among the 15 most abundant genera in both groups revealed that almost all these genera utilized five early-stage enzymes responsible for catalyzing the nine conserved lipid A synthesis steps. However, Haemophilus and Escherichia, which were significantly more abundant in individuals with ASD than in the control subjects, possess a complete set of essential lipid A synthesis enzymes. Furthermore, the 10 genera with the greatest increase in individuals with ASD showed high potential for producing late-stage lipid A products. Collectively, these results suggested that the synthesis rate of immunogenic LPS end products is likely to increase in individuals with ASD, which may be related to their gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated inflammatory conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Breast Cancer in the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020687 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Dairy products might influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, evidence is inconsistent. We sought to examine the association between dairy product consumption—and their subtypes—and incident BC in a Mediterranean cohort. The SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Project is a Spanish dynamic ongoing cohort [...] Read more.
Dairy products might influence breast cancer (BC) risk. However, evidence is inconsistent. We sought to examine the association between dairy product consumption—and their subtypes—and incident BC in a Mediterranean cohort. The SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) Project is a Spanish dynamic ongoing cohort of university graduates. Dairy product consumption was estimated through a previously validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident BC was reported in biennial follow-up questionnaires and confirmed with revision of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with Cox regression models. Among 123,297 women-years of follow-up (10,930 women, median follow-up 12.1 years), we confirmed 119 incident BC cases. We found a nonlinear association between total dairy product consumption and BC incidence (pnonlinear = 0.048) and a significant inverse association for women with moderate total dairy product consumption (HRQ2vs.Q1 = 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84); HRQ3vs.Q1 = 0.49 (95% CI 0.29–0.84) ptrend = 0.623) and with moderate low-fat dairy product consumption (HRQ2vs.Q1 = 0.58 (95% CI 0.35–0.97); HRQ3vs.Q1 = 0.55 (95% CI 0.32–0.92), ptrend = 0.136). In stratified analyses, we found a significant inverse association between intermediate low-fat dairy product consumption and premenopausal BC and between medium total dairy product consumption and postmenopausal BC. Thus, dairy products, especially low-fat dairy products, may be considered within overall prudent dietary patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Associations between Dietary Patterns, Nutrition and Risk of Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle
Ocoxin Increases the Antitumor Effect of BRAF Inhibition and Reduces Cancer Associated Fibroblast-Mediated Chemoresistance and Protumoral Activity in Metastatic Melanoma
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 686; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020686 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Whereas the prevalence of several cancer types is decreasing, skin malignancies are growing more common every year. Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with high metastatic capacity. In most cases, malignant melanoma shows acquired therapy resistance. We evaluated the [...] Read more.
Whereas the prevalence of several cancer types is decreasing, skin malignancies are growing more common every year. Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with high metastatic capacity. In most cases, malignant melanoma shows acquired therapy resistance. We evaluated the ability of Ocoxin, a natural compound-based antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutritional complement, to exert an antitumor effect in melanoma. To do so, the cytotoxicity of Ocoxin in a panel of BRAF-mutated murine and human melanoma cell lines was tested alone and in combination with BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib. Our results revealed a potent cytotoxic effect of Ocoxin against melanoma cells and a synergic effect when combined with Vemurafenib, reducing viability and increasing apoptosis. Besides, Ocoxin interferes with the cell cycle, impairs the inherent and fibroblast-mediated melanoma cell migration, and reduces resistance to BRAF inhibition. Proteomic analysis revealed reduced tumor secretion of inflammatory factors Galectin-1, Osteopontin, CCL5, and CCL9 upon treatment with Ocoxin. Moreover, RNASeq showed that Ocoxin downregulated the cell cycle and proliferation-related genes. In vivo, Ocoxin reduced the number of lung metastasis of YUMM-1.7 melanoma cells. Therefore, Ocoxin arises as a good candidate for clinical trials analyzing the beneficial effects in patients suffering from this cutaneous malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants, Phytonutrients and Cancer Risk)
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Open AccessArticle
Vegan Diet and Bone Health—Results from the Cross-Sectional RBVD Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020685 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 8123
Abstract
Scientific evidence suggests that a vegan diet might be associated with impaired bone health. Therefore, a cross-sectional study (n = 36 vegans, n = 36 omnivores) was used to investigate the associations of veganism with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements, along with [...] Read more.
Scientific evidence suggests that a vegan diet might be associated with impaired bone health. Therefore, a cross-sectional study (n = 36 vegans, n = 36 omnivores) was used to investigate the associations of veganism with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements, along with the investigation of differences in the concentrations of nutrition- and bone-related biomarkers between vegans and omnivores. This study revealed lower levels in the QUS parameters in vegans compared to omnivores, e.g., broadband ultrasound attenuation (vegans: 111.8 ± 10.7 dB/MHz, omnivores: 118.0 ± 10.8 dB/MHz, p = 0.02). Vegans had lower levels of vitamin A, B2, lysine, zinc, selenoprotein P, n-3 fatty acids, urinary iodine, and calcium levels, while the concentrations of vitamin K1, folate, and glutamine were higher in vegans compared to omnivores. Applying a reduced rank regression, 12 out of the 28 biomarkers were identified to contribute most to bone health, i.e., lysine, urinary iodine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, selenoprotein P, vitamin A, leucine, α-klotho, n-3 fatty acids, urinary calcium/magnesium, vitamin B6, and FGF23. All QUS parameters increased across the tertiles of the pattern score. The study provides evidence of lower bone health in vegans compared to omnivores, additionally revealing a combination of nutrition-related biomarkers, which may contribute to bone health. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Curcumin on Glycemic Control and Lipid Profile in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 684; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020684 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The therapeutic effects of curcumin for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain inconclusive. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of curcumin on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with PCOS. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched [...] Read more.
The therapeutic effects of curcumin for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) remain inconclusive. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of curcumin on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with PCOS. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception through 28 November 2020. Randomized control trials (RCTs), which enrolled adult patients with PCOS, compared curcumin with placebo regarding the glycemic control and lipid profile, and reported sufficient information for performing meta-analysis, were included. Three RCTs were included. Curcumin significantly improves fasting glucose (mean difference (MD): −2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): −4.16 to −1.38), fasting insulin (MD: −1.33, 95% CI: −2.18 to −0.49), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: −0.32, 95% CI: −0.52 to −0.12), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (MD: 0.010, 95% CI: 0.003–0.018). It also significantly improves high-density lipoprotein (MD: 1.92, 95% CI: 0.33–3.51) and total cholesterol (MD: −12.45, 95% CI: −22.05 to −2.85). In contrast, there is no statistically significant difference in the improvement in low-density lipoprotein (MD: −6.02, 95% CI: −26.66 to 14.62) and triglyceride (MD: 8.22, 95% CI: −26.10 to 42.53) between curcumin and placebo. The results of the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, and total cholesterol are conclusive as indicated by the trial sequential analysis. Curcumin may improve glycemic control and lipid metabolism in patients with PCOS and metabolic abnormality without significant adverse effects. Further studies are advocated to investigate the potential effects of curcumin on hyperandrogenism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Gynecologic Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Food Policy Councils and Policies That Support Healthy Food Access: A National Survey of Community Policy Supports
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 683; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020683 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 741
Abstract
Food policy councils (FPCs) are one form of community coalition that aims to address challenges to local food systems and enhance availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods for local residents. We used data from the 2014 National Survey of Community-Based Policy and [...] Read more.
Food policy councils (FPCs) are one form of community coalition that aims to address challenges to local food systems and enhance availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthy foods for local residents. We used data from the 2014 National Survey of Community-Based Policy and Environmental Supports for Healthy Eating and Active Living, a nationally representative survey of US municipalities (n = 2029), to examine the prevalence of FPCs and cross-sectional associations between FPCs and four types of supports for healthy food access (approaches to help food stores, practices to support farmers markets, transportation-related supports, and community planning documents). Overall, 7.7% of municipalities reported having a local or regional FPC. FPCs were more commonly reported among larger municipalities with ≥50,000 people (29.2%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 21.6, 36.8) and western region municipalities (13.2%, 95% CI: 9.6, 16.8). After multivariable adjustment, municipalities with FPCs had significantly higher odds of having all four types of supports, compared to those without FPCs (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) range: 2.4–3.4). Among municipalities with FPCs (n = 156), 41% reported having a local government employee or elected official as a member, and 46% had a designated health or public health representative. Although FPCs were uncommon, municipalities that reported having a local or regional FPC were more likely to report having supports for healthy food access for their residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
Consumption of Ultra-Processed Food and Its Association with Sociodemographic Characteristics and Diet Quality in a Representative Sample of French Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 682; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020682 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
The present study aims to describe ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in a representative sample of French adults and to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and socioeconomic characteristics and nutritional profile of the diet. This is a cross-sectional study using food consumption data [...] Read more.
The present study aims to describe ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption in a representative sample of French adults and to evaluate the association between UPF consumption and socioeconomic characteristics and nutritional profile of the diet. This is a cross-sectional study using food consumption data from the Étude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS), conducted with 2642 participants (18–74 years old), between February 2006 and March 2007 in France. Dietary data were collected through three 24-h dietary recalls. All food and beverages were classified according to the NOVA classification. The energy contribution of NOVA food groups to total energy intake was presented by categories of sociodemographic characteristics. Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between the percentage of UPF in the diet with nutritional indicators. The mean daily energy consumption of the adult French population was 2111 kcal, of which 31.1% came from UPF. This percentage was higher among younger individuals, and in the urban area, and lower among individuals with incomplete high school and individuals who were retired. The consumption of UPF was positively associated with the dietary energy density and the dietary contents of total carbohydrates, free sugar, and total and saturated fat, as well as with inadequate dietary energy density, saturated fat, free sugar, and fiber intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods and Health Harm)
Open AccessReview
Effectiveness of Breastfeeding Support Packages in Low- and Middle-Income Countries for Infants under Six Months: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13020681 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months, defined as those with wasting, underweight, or other forms of growth failure, are at high-risk of mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organisation 2013 guidelines on severe acute malnutrition highlight the need to effectively manage [...] Read more.
Small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months, defined as those with wasting, underweight, or other forms of growth failure, are at high-risk of mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organisation 2013 guidelines on severe acute malnutrition highlight the need to effectively manage this vulnerable group, but programmatic challenges are widely reported. This review aims to inform future management strategies for small and nutritionally at-risk infants under six months in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by synthesising evidence on existing breastfeeding support packages for all infants under six months. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Global Health databases from inception to 18 July 2018. Intervention of interest were breastfeeding support packages. Studies reporting breastfeeding practices and/or caregivers’/healthcare staffs’ knowledge/skills/practices for infants under six months from LMICs were included. Study quality was assessed using NICE quality appraisal checklist for intervention studies. A narrative data synthesis using the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting guideline was conducted and key features of successful programmes identified. Of 15,256 studies initially identified, 41 were eligible for inclusion. They were geographically diverse, representing 22 LMICs. Interventions were mainly targeted at mother–infant pairs and only 7% (n = 3) studies included at-risk infants. Studies were rated to be of good or adequate quality. Twenty studies focused on hospital-based interventions, another 20 on community-based and one study compared both. Among all interventions, breastfeeding counselling (n = 6) and education (n = 6) support packages showed the most positive effect on breastfeeding practices followed by breastfeeding training (n = 4), promotion (n = 4) and peer support (n = 3). Breastfeeding education support (n = 3) also improved caregivers’ knowledge/skills/practices. Identified breastfeeding support packages can serve as "primary prevention" interventions for all infants under six months in LMICs. For at-risk infants, these packages need to be adapted and formally tested in future studies. Future work should also examine impacts of breastfeeding support on anthropometry and morbidity outcomes. The review protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018102795). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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