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Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 332 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Creatine supplementation, with and without resistance training, has shown promise for having beneficial effects on aging muscle, bone and fat mass. As a result, creatine supplementation may have therapeutic effects for older adults with sarcopenia, osteoporosis, osteosarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, physical frailty and cachexia. View this paper
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Article
The Effects of Time-Restricted Eating versus Standard Dietary Advice on Weight, Metabolic Health and the Consumption of Processed Food: A Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Trial in Community-Based Adults
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1042; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031042 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2634
Abstract
Weight loss is key to controlling the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components, i.e., central obesity, hypertension, prediabetes and dyslipidaemia. The goals of our study were two-fold. First, we characterised the relationships between eating duration, unprocessed and processed food consumption [...] Read more.
Weight loss is key to controlling the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components, i.e., central obesity, hypertension, prediabetes and dyslipidaemia. The goals of our study were two-fold. First, we characterised the relationships between eating duration, unprocessed and processed food consumption and metabolic health. During 4 weeks of observation, 213 adults used a smartphone application to record food and drink consumption, which was annotated for food processing levels following the NOVA classification. Low consumption of unprocessed food and low physical activity showed significant associations with multiple MS components. Second, in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we compared the metabolic benefits of 12 h time-restricted eating (TRE) to standard dietary advice (SDA) in 54 adults with an eating duration > 14 h and at least one MS component. After 6 months, those randomised to TRE lost 1.6% of initial body weight (SD 2.9, p = 0.01), compared to the absence of weight loss with SDA (−1.1%, SD 3.5, p = 0.19). There was no significant difference in weight loss between TRE and SDA (between-group difference −0.88%, 95% confidence interval −3.1 to 1.3, p = 0.43). Our results show the potential of smartphone records to predict metabolic health and highlight that further research is needed to improve individual responses to TRE such as a shorter eating window or its actual clock time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chrononutrition and Chronic Diseases)
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Erratum
Erratum: McKendry, J., et al. Nutritional Supplements to Support Resistance Exercise in Countering the Sarcopenia of Aging. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2057
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031041 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 901
Abstract
The authors would like to correct an omission in a published paper [...] Full article
Review
Protein Substitute Requirements of Patients with Phenylketonuria on BH4 Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1040; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031040 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
The traditional treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet, supplemented with a Phe-free/low-Phe protein substitute. Pharmaceutical treatment with synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzyme cofactor, allows a patient subgroup to relax their diet. However, dietary protocols guiding the adjustments of protein equivalent [...] Read more.
The traditional treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet, supplemented with a Phe-free/low-Phe protein substitute. Pharmaceutical treatment with synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzyme cofactor, allows a patient subgroup to relax their diet. However, dietary protocols guiding the adjustments of protein equivalent intake from protein substitute with BH4 treatment are lacking. We systematically reviewed protein substitute usage with long-term BH4 therapy. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and March 2020. Eighteen studies (306 PKU patients) were eligible. Meta-analyses demonstrated a significant increase in Phe and natural protein intakes and a significant decrease in protein equivalent intake from protein substitute with cofactor therapy. Protein substitute could be discontinued in 51% of responsive patients, but was still required in 49%, despite improvement in Phe tolerance. Normal growth was maintained, but micronutrient deficiency was observed with BH4 treatment. A systematic protocol to increase natural protein intake while reducing protein substitute dose should be followed to ensure protein and micronutrient requirements are met and sustained. We propose recommendations to guide healthcare professionals when adjusting dietary prescriptions of PKU patients on BH4. Studies investigating new therapeutic options in PKU should systematically collect data on protein substitute and natural protein intakes, as well as other nutritional factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Therapy and Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria)
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Review
Multinutrient Biofortification of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Africa: Current Status, Opportunities and Limitations
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1039; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031039 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Macro and micronutrient deficiencies pose serious health challenges globally, with the largest impact in developing regions such as subSaharan Africa (SSA), Latin America and South Asia. Maize is a good source of calories but contains low concentrations of essential nutrients. Major limiting nutrients [...] Read more.
Macro and micronutrient deficiencies pose serious health challenges globally, with the largest impact in developing regions such as subSaharan Africa (SSA), Latin America and South Asia. Maize is a good source of calories but contains low concentrations of essential nutrients. Major limiting nutrients in maize-based diets are essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan, and micronutrients such as vitamin A, zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Responding to these challenges, separate maize biofortification programs have been designed worldwide, resulting in several cultivars with high levels of provitamin A, lysine, tryptophan, Zn and Fe being commercialized. This strategy of developing single-nutrient biofortified cultivars does not address the nutrient deficiency challenges in SSA in an integrated manner. Hence, development of maize with multinutritional attributes can be a sustainable and cost-effective strategy for addressing the problem of nutrient deficiencies in SSA. This review provides a synopsis of the health challenges associated with Zn, provitamin A and tryptophan deficiencies and link these to vulnerable societies; a synthesis of past and present intervention measures for addressing nutrient deficiencies in SSA; and a discussion on the possibility of developing maize with multinutritional quality attributes, but also with adaptation to stress conditions in SSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Review
Adherence to Food-Based Dietary Guidelines: A Systemic Review of High-Income and Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1038; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031038 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Research comparing the adherence to food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) across countries with different socio-economic status is lacking, which may be a concern for developing nutrition policies. The aim was to report on the adherence to FBDGs in high-income (HIC) and low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC). [...] Read more.
Research comparing the adherence to food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) across countries with different socio-economic status is lacking, which may be a concern for developing nutrition policies. The aim was to report on the adherence to FBDGs in high-income (HIC) and low-and-middle-income countries (LMIC). A systematic review with searches in six databases was performed up to June 2020. English language articles were included if they investigated a population of healthy children and adults (7–65 years), using an observational or experimental design evaluating adherence to national FBDGs. Findings indicate that almost 40% of populations in both HIC and LMIC do not adhere to their national FBDGs. Fruit and vegetables (FV) were most adhered to and the prevalence of adhering FV guidelines was between 7% to 67.3%. HIC have higher consumption of discretionary foods, while results were mixed for LMIC. Grains and dairy were consumed below recommendations in both HIC and LMIC. Consumption of animal proteins (>30%), particularly red meat, exceeded the recommendations. Individuals from HIC and LMIC may be falling short of at least one dietary recommendation from their country’s guidelines. Future health policies, behavioral-change strategies, and dietary guidelines may consider these results in their development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating in Relation to National Dietary Guidelines)
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Article
Soluble Fiber Inulin Consumption Limits Alterations of the Gut Microbiota and Hepatic Fatty Acid Metabolism Caused by High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031037 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1270
Abstract
Diet shapes the gut microbiota which impacts hepatic lipid metabolism. Modifications in liver fat content are associated with metabolic disorders. We investigated the extent of dietary fat and fiber-induced alterations in the composition of gut microbiota and hepatic fatty acids (FAs). Mice were [...] Read more.
Diet shapes the gut microbiota which impacts hepatic lipid metabolism. Modifications in liver fat content are associated with metabolic disorders. We investigated the extent of dietary fat and fiber-induced alterations in the composition of gut microbiota and hepatic fatty acids (FAs). Mice were fed a purified low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing non-soluble fiber cellulose or soluble fiber inulin. HFD induced hepatic decreases in the amounts of C14:0, C16:1n-7, C18:1n-7 and increases in the amounts of C17:0, C20:0, C16:1n-9, C22:5n-3, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, and C22:4n-6. When incorporated in a LFD, inulin poorly affected the profile of FAs. However, when incorporated in a HFD, it (i) specifically led to an increase in the amounts of hepatic C18:0, C22:0, total polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), total n-6 PUFAs, C18:3n-3, and C18:2n-6, (ii) exacerbated the HFD-induced increase in the amount of C17:0, and (iii) prevented the HFD-induced increases in C16:1n-9 and C20:3n-6. Importantly, the expression/activity of some elongases and desaturases, as well as the gut microbiota composition, were impacted by the dietary fat and fiber content. To conclude, inulin modulated gut microbiota and hepatic fatty acid composition, and further investigations will determine whether a causal relationship exists between these two parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Fat High-Saturated Diet)
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Review
The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13031036 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes. Sixty-five systematic reviews (63 diet [...] Read more.
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes. Sixty-five systematic reviews (63 diet and physical activity; 2 smoking) reporting 602 meta-analyses, published since 2011, were identified; no data were identified for alcohol interventions. A wide range of outcomes were reported, including gestational weight gain, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes (GDM) and fetal growth. There was consistent evidence from diet and physical activity interventions for a significantly reduced mean gestational weight gain (ranging from −0.21 kg (95% confidence interval −0.34, −0.08) to −5.77 kg (95% CI −9.34, −2.21). There was evidence from larger diet and physical activity meta-analyses for a significant reduction in postnatal weight retention, caesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hypertension, GDM and preterm delivery, and for smoking interventions to significantly increase birth weight. There was no statistically significant evidence of interventions having an effect on low or high birthweight, neonatal intensive care unit admission, Apgar score or mortality outcomes. Priority areas for future research to capitalise on pregnancy as an opportunity to improve the lifelong wellbeing of women and their children are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Obesity and Nutrients)
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Article
Associations of Dietary Patterns and Nutrients with Glycated Hemoglobin in Participants with and without Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1035; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031035 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Background: Diet has been associated with poor glycemic control in diabetes. Few studies have examined this association in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), who are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes. Methods: We report data from cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background: Diet has been associated with poor glycemic control in diabetes. Few studies have examined this association in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), who are at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than people without diabetes. Methods: We report data from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from a coronary artery calcification in type 1 diabetes (CACTI) study (n = 1257; T1D: n = 568; non-diabetic controls: n = 689) collected between the years 2000 and 2002. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, a physical examination, and biochemical analyses. Dietary patterns based on variations in food group intake were created with principal components analysis. Linear regression was used to examine the associations of dietary patterns, macronutrients, and food groups with HbA1c in a model adjusted for relevant covariates and stratified by diabetes status. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: “fruits, veggies, meats, cereal”, “baked desserts” and “convenience foods and alcohol” patterns. At baseline, a higher intake of the “baked dessert” pattern was significantly associated with higher HbA1c in T1D at baseline as well at year 6 of the study when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, total calories, and diabetes duration. No such associations were observed in the case of non-diabetic controls. Dietary saturated fats and animal fats were also positively associated with HbA1c in adults with T1D at baseline and/or at year 6. Conclusions: The habitual intake of a dietary pattern that is characterized by an increased intake of added sugar and saturated fats, such as in baked desserts, may increase risks of poor glycemic control in T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Cardiovascular Prevention)
Article
Associations of Dietary Patterns with Incident Depression: The Maastricht Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1034; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031034 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Our aim was to assess the association between a priori defined dietary patterns and incident depressive symptoms. We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 2646, mean (SD) age 59.9 (8.0) years, 49.5% women; 15,188 person-years of [...] Read more.
Our aim was to assess the association between a priori defined dietary patterns and incident depressive symptoms. We used data from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 2646, mean (SD) age 59.9 (8.0) years, 49.5% women; 15,188 person-years of follow-up). Level of adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet (DHD), Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH) were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually over seven-year-follow-up (using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire). We used Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to assess the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms. One standard deviation (SD) higher adherence in the DHD and DASH was associated with a lower hazard ratio (HR) of depressive symptoms with HRs (95%CI) of 0.78 (0.69–0.89) and 0.87 (0.77–0.98), respectively, after adjustment for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. After further adjustment for lifestyle factors, the HR per one SD higher DHD was 0.83 (0.73–0.96), whereas adherence to Mediterranean and DASH diets was not associated with incident depressive symptoms. Higher adherence to the DHD lowered risk of incident depressive symptoms. Adherence to healthy diet could be an effective non-pharmacological preventive measure to reduce the incidence of depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Healthiness and Sustainability of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines)
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Article
Effects of a Short-Term “Fat Adaptation with Carbohydrate Restoration” Diet on Metabolic Responses and Exercise Performance in Well-Trained Runners
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1033; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031033 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1157
Abstract
Periodized carbohydrate availability can enhance exercise capacity, but the effects of short-term fat adaptation carbohydrate restoration (FACR) diets on metabolic responses and exercise performance in endurance athletes have not been conclusively determined. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a FACR diet [...] Read more.
Periodized carbohydrate availability can enhance exercise capacity, but the effects of short-term fat adaptation carbohydrate restoration (FACR) diets on metabolic responses and exercise performance in endurance athletes have not been conclusively determined. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a FACR diet on measures of resting metabolism, exercise metabolism, and exercise performance. Well-trained male runners (n = 8) completed a FACR dietary intervention (five days’ carbohydrate < 20% and fat > 60% energy, plus one-day carbohydrate ≥ 70% energy), and a control high-carbohydrate (HCHO) diet for six days (carbohydrate > 60% energy; fat < 20% energy) in a randomized crossover design. Pre- and post-intervention metabolic measures included resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), maximum fat oxidation rate during exercise (MFO), and maximum fat oxidation intensity (FATmax). Measures of exercise performance included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), running economy (RE), and 5 km running time trial (5 km-TT). In FACR compared with HCHO, there were significant improvements in FATmax (p = 0.006) and RE (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between FACR and HCHO in RMR, RQ, VO2max, or 5 km-TT. Findings suggest that a short-term (six days) FACR diet may facilitate increased fat oxidation and submaximal exercise economy but does not improve 5 km-TT performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Energy Intake and Body Composition for Health and Performance)
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Article
Pathogenic Microenvironment from Diabetic–Obese Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipocytes Activating Differentiation of Human Healthy Preadipocytes Increases Intracellular Fat, Effect of the Apocarotenoid Crocetin
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1032; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031032 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
In diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), developed obesity is referred to as diabesity. Implementation of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean, prevents diabesity. Saffron is frequently used in this diet because of its bioactive components, such as crocetin (CCT), exhibit healthful properties. [...] Read more.
In diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), developed obesity is referred to as diabesity. Implementation of a healthy diet, such as the Mediterranean, prevents diabesity. Saffron is frequently used in this diet because of its bioactive components, such as crocetin (CCT), exhibit healthful properties. It is well known that obesity, defined as an excessive accumulation of fat, leads to cardiometabolic pathology through adiposopathy or hypertrophic growth of adipose tissue (AT).This is related to an impaired adipogenic process or death of adipocytes by obesogenic signals. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the pathogenic microenvironment and CCT, activating differentiation of healthy preadipocytes (PA). For this, we used human cryopreserved PA from visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depots obtained from healthy and obese-DM2 donors. We studied the effect of a metabolically detrimental (diabesogenic) environment, generated by obese-DM2 adipocytes from VAT (VdDM) or SAT (SdDM), on the viability and accumulation of intracellular fat of adipocytes differentiated from healthy PA, in the presence or absence of CCT (1 or 10 μM). Intracellular fat was quantified by Oil Red O staining. Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay. Our results showed that diabesogenic conditions induce cytotoxicity and provide a proadipogenic environment only for visceral PA. CCT at 10 μM acted as an antiadipogenic and cytoprotective compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Dietary Bioactives)
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Article
Hypotensive and Hepatoprotective Properties of the Polysaccharide-Stabilized Foaming Composition Containing Hydrolysate of Whey Proteins
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1031; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031031 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 729
Abstract
Whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) are one of the most promising sources of biofunctional peptides with such beneficial properties as antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory and others. WPHs also could be used as foaming agents for aerated products (e.g., milk shake type drinks). However, WPH alone [...] Read more.
Whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) are one of the most promising sources of biofunctional peptides with such beneficial properties as antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory and others. WPHs also could be used as foaming agents for aerated products (e.g., milk shake type drinks). However, WPH alone has a bitter taste and foamed WPH should be stabilized by additional ingredients. Here, we present a composition including WPH and three polysaccharides—pumpkin pectin, sodium alginate and ι-carrageenan—used as foam stabilizers. Polysaccharide content was selected according to foaming, organoleptic antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory characteristics of the resulted composition. Further, the hypotensive, antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of the composition were proved by in vivo tests performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats with CCl4-induced hepatic injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Characterization of the Luminal and Mucosa-Associated Microbiome along the Gastrointestinal Tract: Results from Surgically Treated Preterm Infants and a Murine Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1030; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031030 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
Environmental factors, including nutritional habits or birth mode, are known key determinants for intestinal microbial composition. Investigations of the intestinal microbiome in different species in a multiplicity of studies during recent decades have revealed differential microbial patterns and quantities along the gastrointestinal (GI) [...] Read more.
Environmental factors, including nutritional habits or birth mode, are known key determinants for intestinal microbial composition. Investigations of the intestinal microbiome in different species in a multiplicity of studies during recent decades have revealed differential microbial patterns and quantities along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Characterization of the microbial pattern in various aspects is a prerequisite for nutritional interventions. In this 16S rRNA amplicon-based approach, we present a characterization of the mucosa-associated microbiome in comparison with the luminal community of four infants at the time of the closure of ileostomies and perform a systematic characterization of the corresponding luminal and mucosal microbiome from jejunal, ileal and colonic regions, as well as collected feces in mice. The most dominant taxa in infant-derived samples altered due to individual differences, and in the mucosa, Enterococcus, Clostridiumsensustricto1, Veillonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus were the most abundant. Two less abundant taxa differed significantly between the mucosa and lumen. In murine samples, relative abundances differed significantly, mainly between the intestinal regions. Significant differences between mouse mucosa- and lumen-derived samples could be found in the observed species with a trend to lower estimated diversity in mucosa-derived samples, as well as in the relative abundance of individual taxa. In this study, we examined the difference between the mucosal and luminal bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in a small sample cohort of preterm infants. Individual differences were characterized and statistical significance was reached in two taxa (Cupriavidus, Ralstonia). The corresponding study on the different murine intestinal regions along the GI tract showed differences all over the intestinal region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota in Very Low Birth Weight Infants)
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Article
Low Carb and Ketogenic Diets Increase Quality of Life, Physical Performance, Body Composition, and Metabolic Health of Women with Breast Cancer
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031029 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) patients often ask for a healthy diet. Here, we investigated a healthy standard diet (SD), a low carb diet (LCD), and a ketogenic diet (KD) for BC patients during the rehabilitation phase. KOLIBRI was an open-label non-randomized one-site nutritional intervention [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) patients often ask for a healthy diet. Here, we investigated a healthy standard diet (SD), a low carb diet (LCD), and a ketogenic diet (KD) for BC patients during the rehabilitation phase. KOLIBRI was an open-label non-randomized one-site nutritional intervention trial, combining inpatient and outpatient phases for 20 weeks. Female BC patients (n = 152; mean age 51.7 years) could select their diet. Data collected were: Quality of life (QoL), spiroergometry, body composition, and blood parameters. In total 30, 92, and 30 patients started the KD, LCD, and SD, respectively. Of those, 20, 76, and 25 completed the final examination. Patients rated all diets as feasible in daily life. All groups enhanced QoL, body composition, and physical performance. LCD participants showed the most impressive improvement in QoL aspects. KD participants finished with a very good physical performance and muscle/fat ratio. Despite increased cholesterol levels, KD patients had the best triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR). Most metabolic parameters significantly improved in the LCD group. SD participants ended with remarkably low cholesterol levels but did not improve triglyceride/HDL or HOMA-IR. In conclusion, both well-defined KDs and LCDs are safe and beneficial for BC patients and can be recommended during the rehabilitation phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbohydrate Diets and Health Outcomes)
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Review
Efficacy of Edible Bird’s Nest on Cognitive Functions in Experimental Animal Models: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1028; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031028 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is constructed from saliva of swiftlets birds and consumed largely by Southeast and East Asians for its nutritional value and anti-aging properties. Although the neuroprotection of EBN in animals has been reported, there has not been yet systemically summarized. [...] Read more.
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is constructed from saliva of swiftlets birds and consumed largely by Southeast and East Asians for its nutritional value and anti-aging properties. Although the neuroprotection of EBN in animals has been reported, there has not been yet systemically summarized. Thus, this review systemically outlined the evidence of the neuroprotective activity of EBN in modulating the cognitive functions of either healthy or with induced-cognitive dysfunction animals as compared to placebos. The related records from 2010 to 2020 were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and ScienceDirect using pre-specified keywords. The relevant records to the effect of EBN on cognition were selected according to the eligibility criteria and these studies underwent appraisal for the risk of bias. EBN improved the cognitive functions of induced-cognitive dysfunction and enhanced the cognitive performance of healthy animals as well as attenuated the neuroinflammations and neuro-oxidative stress in the hippocampus of these animals. Malaysian EBN could improve the cognitive functions of experimental animals as a treatment in induced cognitive dysfunction, a nutritional cognitive-enhancing agent in offspring and a prophylactic conservative effect on cognition against exposure to subsequent noxious cerebral accidents in a dose-depended manner through attenuating neuroinflammation and neuro-oxidative stress. This systemic review did not proceed meta-analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Relationship between Dietary Creatine and Growth Indicators in Children and Adolescents Aged 2–19 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1027; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031027 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1800
Abstract
A possible role of dietary creatine for ensuring proper growth and development remains unknown. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to quantify the amount of creatine consumed through regular diet among U.S. children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years and [...] Read more.
A possible role of dietary creatine for ensuring proper growth and development remains unknown. The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to quantify the amount of creatine consumed through regular diet among U.S. children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years and investigate the relationship between creatine intake and growth indicators, using data from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We included data for NHANES 2001–2002 respondents (4291 participants, 2133 boys and 2158 girls) aged 2 to 19 years at the time of screening, who provided valid dietary information and examination measures (standing height and weight). Individual values for total grams of creatine consumed per day for each participant were computed using the average amount of creatine (3.88 g/kg) across all sources of meat-based foods. All participants were categorized for height-for-age and BMI-for-age categories. The average daily intake of creatine across the whole sample was 1.07 ± 1.07 g (95% CI, from 1.04 to 1.10). Height, weight, and BMI were significantly different across creatine quartiles (p < 0.001), with all measures significantly higher in the 4th quartile of creatine intake (≥1.5 g/day) than those in other quartiles (p < 0.05). The participants from the 3rd quartile of creatine intake (0.84–1.49 g/day) were significantly different from others with respect to having lower rates of normal stature and higher rates of tall stature (p < 0.05). Each additional 0.1 g of creatine consumed per day increases height by 0.60 cm (simple model) or 0.30 cm (adjusted model). The daily intake of creatine from a regular diet in taller children and adolescents was higher than in shorter peers aged 2–19 years. Future research has to monitor temporal changes in growth and dietary creatine and validate our findings in interventional studies across pediatric populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Creatine Supplementation for Health and Clinical Diseases)
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Review
Breast Milk: A Source of Functional Compounds with Potential Application in Nutrition and Therapy
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1026; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031026 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
Breast milk is an unbeatable food that covers all the nutritional requirements of an infant in its different stages of growth up to six months after birth. In addition, breastfeeding benefits both maternal and child health. Increasing knowledge has been acquired regarding the [...] Read more.
Breast milk is an unbeatable food that covers all the nutritional requirements of an infant in its different stages of growth up to six months after birth. In addition, breastfeeding benefits both maternal and child health. Increasing knowledge has been acquired regarding the composition of breast milk. Epidemiological studies and epigenetics allow us to understand the possible lifelong effects of breastfeeding. In this review we have compiled some of the components with clear functional activity that are present in human milk and the processes through which they promote infant development and maturation as well as modulate immunity. Milk fat globule membrane, proteins, oligosaccharides, growth factors, milk exosomes, or microorganisms are functional components to use in infant formulas, any other food products, nutritional supplements, nutraceuticals, or even for the development of new clinical therapies. The clinical evaluation of these compounds and their commercial exploitation are limited by the difficulty of isolating and producing them on an adequate scale. In this work we focus on the compounds produced using milk components from other species such as bovine, transgenic cattle capable of expressing components of human breast milk or microbial culture engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Article
L-Glutamine Supplementation Enhances Strength and Power of Knee Muscles and Improves Glycemia Control and Plasma Redox Balance in Exercising Elderly Women
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1025; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031025 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
We investigated the effects of oral L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation, associated or not with physical exercises, in control of glycemia, oxidative stress, and strength/power of knee muscles in elderly women. Physically active (n = 21) and sedentary (n = 23) elderly women [...] Read more.
We investigated the effects of oral L-glutamine (Gln) supplementation, associated or not with physical exercises, in control of glycemia, oxidative stress, and strength/power of knee muscles in elderly women. Physically active (n = 21) and sedentary (n = 23) elderly women aged 60 to 80 years were enrolled in the study. Plasma levels of D-fructosamine, insulin, reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, iron, uric acid, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) (lipoperoxidation product), as well as knee extensor/flexor muscle torque peak and average power (isokinetic test), were assessed pre- and post-supplementation with Gln or placebo (30 days). Higher plasma D-fructosamine, insulin, and iron levels, and lower strength/power of knee muscles were found pre-supplementation in the NPE group than in the PE group. Post-supplementation, Gln subgroups showed higher levels of GSH, GSSG, and torque peak, besides lower D-fructosamine than pre-supplementation values. Higher muscle average power and plasma uric acid levels were reported in the PE + Gln group, whereas lower insulin levels were found in the NPE + Gln than pre-supplementation values. TBARs levels were diminished post-supplementation in all groups. Gln supplementation, mainly when associated with physical exercises, improves strength and power of knee muscles and glycemia control, besides boosting plasma antioxidant capacity of elderly women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Intake and Physical Exercise as Modulators of Healthy Women)
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Article
Effects of Bovine Colostrum with or without Egg on In Vitro Bacterial-Induced Intestinal Damage with Relevance for SIBO and Infectious Diarrhea
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1024; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031024 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs commonly, is difficult to treat, and frequently recurs. Bovine colostrum (BC) and chicken eggs contain immunoglobulins and other components that possess antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, and growth factor activities; however, it is not known if they have the ability [...] Read more.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) occurs commonly, is difficult to treat, and frequently recurs. Bovine colostrum (BC) and chicken eggs contain immunoglobulins and other components that possess antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, and growth factor activities; however, it is not known if they have the ability to reduce injury caused by the presence of bacteria associated with SIBO (Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Bacteroides, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, and Proteus) and infectious diarrhea (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella). We examined the effects of BC, egg, or the combination, on bacterial growth and bacteria-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and bacterial translocation across confluent Caco-2 monolayers. BC, egg, or the combination did not affect bacterial growth. Adding bacteria to monolayers reduced TEER and (with minor variations among species) increased bacterial translocation, increased monolayer apoptosis (increased caspase-3 and Baxα, reduced Bcl2), increased intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and reduced cell adhesion molecules zonulin1 (ZO1) and claudin-1. BC, egg, or the combination reduced these effects (all p < 0.01) and caused additional increases in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) expression. We conclude that BC ± egg strengthens mucosal integrity against a battery of bacteria relevant for SIBO and for infectious diarrhea. Oral BC ± egg may have clinical value for these conditions, especially SIBO where eradication of precipitating organisms may be difficult to achieve. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of Bovine Colostrum in Medical Practice and Human Health)
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Article
Relationship between Vitamin Intake and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Japanese Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Shika Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1023; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031023 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Although epidemiological studies revealed a relationship between psychosocial states, such as depressive symptoms, and nutritional intake, limited information is currently available on vitamin intake. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) is not limited to a specific disease, it is constructed based on a [...] Read more.
Although epidemiological studies revealed a relationship between psychosocial states, such as depressive symptoms, and nutritional intake, limited information is currently available on vitamin intake. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) is not limited to a specific disease, it is constructed based on a universal concept of health and is used to evaluate the Quality of life (QOL). A three-component scoring method was developed for “Physical component score (PCS)”, “Mental component score (MCS)”, and “Role/social score (RCS)”. Collectively, these summary scores are called the “QOL summary score”, which is regarded as a more detailed health summary score. In the present study, we aimed at epidemiologically examine the relationship between vitamin intake and QOL in middle-aged and elderly population in 3162 residents in Japan. In women, a multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between all vitamin intake and PCS scores, and between vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin C, and MCS scores. In consideration of depression as MCS of SF-36 and chronic pain as PCS, an insufficient vitamin intake may affect QOL in women; however, a causal relationship has not yet been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
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Article
Hepatoprotective Effect of Mixture of Dipropyl Polysulfides in Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1022; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031022 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 829
Abstract
The main biologically active components of plants belonging to the genus Allium, responsible for their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory, are organosulfur compounds. The aim of this study was to synthetize the mixture of dipropyl polysulfides (DPPS) and to test their [...] Read more.
The main biologically active components of plants belonging to the genus Allium, responsible for their biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory, are organosulfur compounds. The aim of this study was to synthetize the mixture of dipropyl polysulfides (DPPS) and to test their biological activity in acute hepatitis. C57BL/6 mice were administered orally with DPPS 6 h before intravenous injection of Concanavalin A (ConA). Liver inflammation, necrosis and hepatocytes apoptosis were determined by histological analyses. Cytokines in liver tissue were determined by ELISA, expression of adhesive molecules and enzymes by RT PCR, while liver mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. DPPS pretreatment significantly attenuated liver inflammation and injury, as evidenced by biochemical and histopathological observations. In DPPS-pretreated mice, messenger RNA levels of adhesion molecules and NADPH oxidase complex were significantly reduced, while the expression of SOD enzymes was enhanced. DPPS pretreatment decreased protein level of inflammatory cytokines and increased percentage of T regulatory cells in the livers of ConA mice. DPPS showed hepatoprotective effects in ConA-induced hepatitis, characterized by attenuation of inflammation and affection of Th17/Treg balance in favor of T regulatory cells and implicating potential therapeutic usage of DPPS mixture in inflammatory liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Alliaceae)
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Review
Obesity-Associated Inflammation: Does Curcumin Exert a Beneficial Role?
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1021; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031021 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Curcumin is a lipophilic polyphenol, isolated from the plant turmeric of Curcuma longa. Curcuma longa has always been used in traditional medicine in Asian countries because it is believed to have numerous health benefits. Nowadays it is widely used as spice component and [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a lipophilic polyphenol, isolated from the plant turmeric of Curcuma longa. Curcuma longa has always been used in traditional medicine in Asian countries because it is believed to have numerous health benefits. Nowadays it is widely used as spice component and in emerging nutraceutical food worldwide. Numerous studies have shown that curcumin possesses, among others, potential anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity represents a main risk factor for several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. The establishment of a low-grade chronic inflammation, both systemically and locally in adipose tissue, occurring in obesity most likely represents a main factor in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the onset of the obesity-associated inflammation are different from those involved in the classic inflammatory response caused by infections and involves different signaling pathways. The inflammatory process in obese people is triggered by an inadequate intake of nutrients that produces quantitative and qualitative alterations of adipose tissue lipid content, as well as of various molecules that act as endogenous ligands to activate immune cells. In particular, dysfunctional adipocytes secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, the adipocytokines, able to recruit immune cells into adipose tissue, amplifying the inflammatory response also at systemic level. This review summarizes the most recent studies focused at elucidating the molecular targets of curcumin activity responsible for its anti-inflammatory properties in obesity-associated inflammation and related pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Curcumin and Health Effects)
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Article
Exploring the Attitudes of Health Professionals Providing Care to Patients Undergoing Treatment for Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers to Different Models of Nutrition Care Delivery: A Qualitative Investigation
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1020; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031020 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Background: People with upper gastrointestinal cancer are at high risk for malnutrition without universal access to early nutrition interventions. Very little data exist on the attitudes and views of health professionals on providing nutrition care to this patient cohort delivered by electronic health [...] Read more.
Background: People with upper gastrointestinal cancer are at high risk for malnutrition without universal access to early nutrition interventions. Very little data exist on the attitudes and views of health professionals on providing nutrition care to this patient cohort delivered by electronic health methods. COVID-19 has fast-tracked the adoption of digital health care provision, so it is more important than ever to understand the needs of health professionals in providing health care via these modes. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of health professionals on providing nutrition care to upper gastrointestinal cancer patients by electronic methods to allow the future scaling-up of acceptable delivery methods. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Thematic analysis was facilitated by NVivo Pro 12. Results: Interviews were conducted on 13 health professionals from a range of disciplines across several public and private health institutions. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) the ideal model, (2) barriers to the ideal model and (3) how to implement and translate the ideal model. Health professionals viewed the provision of nutrition interventions as an essential part of an upper gastrointestinal cancer patient’s treatment with synchronous, telephone-based internal health service models of nutrition care overwhelmingly seen as the most acceptable model of delivery. Mobile application-based delivery methods were deemed too challenging for the current population serviced by these clinicians. Conclusion: The use of novel technology for delivering nutrition care to people receiving treatment for upper gastrointestinal cancers was not widely accepted as the preferred method of delivery by health professionals. There is an opportunity, given the rapid uptake of digital health care delivery, to ensure that the views and attitudes of health professionals are understood and applied to develop acceptable, efficacious and sustainable technologies in our health care systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Review
Paleolithic Diet—Effect on the Health Status and Performance of Athletes?
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1019; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031019 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 2801
Abstract
The aim of this meta-analysis was to review the impact of a Paleolithic diet (PD) on selected health indicators (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and carbohydrate metabolism) in the short and long term of nutrition intervention in healthy and unhealthy adults. A [...] Read more.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to review the impact of a Paleolithic diet (PD) on selected health indicators (body composition, lipid profile, blood pressure, and carbohydrate metabolism) in the short and long term of nutrition intervention in healthy and unhealthy adults. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of 21 full-text original human studies was conducted. Both the PD and a variety of healthy diets (control diets (CDs)) caused reduction in anthropometric parameters, both in the short and long term. For many indicators, such as weight (body mass (BM)), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), impact was stronger and especially found in the short term. All diets caused a decrease in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), albeit the impact of PD was stronger. Among long-term studies, only PD cased a decline in TC and LDL-C. Impact on blood pressure was observed mainly in the short term. PD caused a decrease in fasting plasma (fP) glucose, fP insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the short run, contrary to CD. In the long term, only PD caused a decrease in fP glucose and fP insulin. Lower positive impact of PD on performance was observed in the group without exercise. Positive effects of the PD on health and the lack of experiments among professional athletes require longer-term interventions to determine the effect of the Paleo diet on athletic performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
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Review
The Gut-Liver Axis in Cholestatic Liver Diseases
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1018; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031018 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
The gut-liver axis describes the physiological interplay between the gut and the liver and has important implications for the maintenance of health. Disruptions of this equilibrium are an important factor in the evolution and progression of many liver diseases. The composition of the [...] Read more.
The gut-liver axis describes the physiological interplay between the gut and the liver and has important implications for the maintenance of health. Disruptions of this equilibrium are an important factor in the evolution and progression of many liver diseases. The composition of the gut microbiome, the gut barrier, bacterial translocation, and bile acid metabolism are the key features of this cycle. Chronic cholestatic liver diseases include primary sclerosing cholangitis, the generic term secondary sclerosing cholangitis implying the disease secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients and primary biliary cirrhosis. Pathophysiology of these diseases is not fully understood but seems to be multifactorial. Knowledge about the alterations of the gut-liver axis influencing the pathogenesis and the outcome of these diseases has considerably increased. Therefore, this review aims to describe the function of the healthy gut-liver axis and to sum up the pathological changes in these cholestatic liver diseases. The review compromises the actual level of knowledge about the gut microbiome (including the mycobiome and the virome), the gut barrier and the consequences of increased gut permeability, the effects of bacterial translocation, and the influence of bile acid composition and pool size in chronic cholestatic liver diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic implications and future scientific objectives are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Bifidobacterium adolescentis Isolated from Different Hosts Modifies the Intestinal Microbiota and Displays Differential Metabolic and Immunomodulatory Properties in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1017; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031017 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The incidence of obesity, which is closely associated with the gut microbiota and chronic inflammation, has rapidly increased in the past 40 years. Therefore, the probiotic-based modification of the intestinal microbiota composition has been developed as a strategy for the treatment of obesity. [...] Read more.
The incidence of obesity, which is closely associated with the gut microbiota and chronic inflammation, has rapidly increased in the past 40 years. Therefore, the probiotic-based modification of the intestinal microbiota composition has been developed as a strategy for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we selected four Bifidobacterium adolescentis strains isolated from the feces of newborn and elderly humans to investigate whether supplementation with B. adolescentis of various origins could alleviate obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy as fat) received one of the following 14-week interventions: (i) B. adolescentis N4_N3, (ii) B. adolescentis Z25, (iii) B. adolescentis 17_3, (iv) B. adolescentis 2016_7_2, and (v) phosphate-buffered saline. The metabolic parameters, thermogenesis, and immunity of all treated mice were measured. Cecal and colonic microbial profiles were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Intestinal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The B. adolescentis strains isolated from the feces of elderly humans (B. adolescentis Z25, 17_3, and 2016_7_2) decreased the body weight or weight gain of mice, whilst the strain isolated from the newborn (B. adolescentis N4_N3) increased the body weight of mice. The B. adolescentis strains isolated from the elderly also increased serum leptin concentrations and induced the expression of thermogenesis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in brown adipose tissue. All the B. adolescentis strains alleviated inflammations in the spleen and brain and modified the cecal and colonic microbiota. Particularly, all strains reversed the HFD-induced depletion of Bifidobacterium and reduced the development of beta-lactam resistance. In addition, the B. adolescentis strains isolated from the elderly increased the relative abundances of potentially beneficial genera, such as Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Faecalibaculum. We speculate that such increased abundance of commensal bacteria may have mediated the alleviation of obesity, as B. adolescentis supplementation decreased the intestinal production of SCFAs, thereby reducing energy delivery to the host mice. Our results revealed that certain strains of B. adolescentis can alleviate obesity and modify the gut microbiota of mice. The tested strains of B. adolescentis showed different effects on lipid metabolism and immunity regulation, with these effects related to whether they had been isolated from the feces of newborn or elderly humans. This indicates that B. adolescentis from different sources may have disparate effects on host health possibly due to the transmission of origin-specific functions to the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Review
Limosilactobacillus fermentum CECT5716: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Insights
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1016; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031016 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Probiotics microorganisms exert their health-associated activities through some of the following general actions: competitive exclusion, enhancement of intestinal barrier function, production of bacteriocins, improvement of altered microbiota, and modulation of the immune response. Among them, Limosilactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 has become one of the [...] Read more.
Probiotics microorganisms exert their health-associated activities through some of the following general actions: competitive exclusion, enhancement of intestinal barrier function, production of bacteriocins, improvement of altered microbiota, and modulation of the immune response. Among them, Limosilactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 has become one of the most promising probiotics and it has been described to possess potential beneficial effects on inflammatory processes and immunological alterations. Different studies, preclinical and clinical trials, have evidenced its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and elucidated the precise mechanisms of action involved in its beneficial effects. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an updated overview of the effect on host health, mechanisms, and future therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Review
Vitamin D and Allergy Susceptibility during Gestation and Early Life
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1015; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031015 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1525
Abstract
Worldwide, the prevalence of allergies in young children, but also vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and in newborns is rising. Vitamin D modulates the development and activity of the immune system and a low vitamin D status during pregnancy and in early life [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the prevalence of allergies in young children, but also vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and in newborns is rising. Vitamin D modulates the development and activity of the immune system and a low vitamin D status during pregnancy and in early life might be associated with an increased risk to develop an allergy during early childhood. This review studies the effects of vitamin D during gestation and early life, on allergy susceptibility in infants. The bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, inhibits maturation and results in immature dendritic cells that cause a decreased differentiation of naive T cells into effector T cells. Nevertheless, the development of regulatory T cells and the production of interleukin-10 was increased. Consequently, a more tolerogenic immune response developed against antigens. Secondly, binding of 1,25(OH)2D to epithelial cells induces the expression of tight junction proteins resulting in enhanced epithelial barrier function. Thirdly, 1,25(OH)2D increased the expression of anti-microbial peptides by epithelial cells that also promoted the defense mechanism against pathogens, by preventing an invasive penetration of pathogens. Immune intervention by vitamin D supplementation can mitigate the disease burden from asthma and allergy. In conclusion, our review indicates that a sufficient vitamin D status during gestation and early life can lower the susceptibility to develop an allergy in infants although there remains a need for more causal evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Associations between Circulating Markers of Cholesterol Homeostasis and Macrovascular Events among Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1014; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031014 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
Current strategies targeting serum cholesterol bring limited benefits to mortality and macrovascular events prevention among hemodialysis patients. Direct measurements and analysis on circulating markers of cholesterol homeostasis could be promising solutions to this bottleneck. We prospectively enrolled 90 maintenance hemodialysis patients and 9 [...] Read more.
Current strategies targeting serum cholesterol bring limited benefits to mortality and macrovascular events prevention among hemodialysis patients. Direct measurements and analysis on circulating markers of cholesterol homeostasis could be promising solutions to this bottleneck. We prospectively enrolled 90 maintenance hemodialysis patients and 9 healthy controls in 2019 for 1 year. We measured circulating desmosterol and lathosterol as markers for cholesterol synthesis and campesterol and sitosterol for cholesterol absorption. At baseline, hemodialysis patients showed higher levels of campesterol (p = 0.023) compared to healthy controls. During follow-up, we identified 14 (15.4%) patients who experienced macrovascular events. Comparisons of cholesterol homeostasis markers between cohorts with and without macrovascular events showed no significant differences in markers of cholesterol synthesis or absorption. Using logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio was not statistically significant for the prediction of macrovascular events after full-adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, serum albumin, cholesterol, and triglyceride. We concluded that hemodialysis patients demonstrated higher level of cholesterols absorption, indicated by circulating campesterol compared to healthy subjects. Markers for cholesterol homeostasis were not significantly associated with macrovascular events during a 1-year follow-up. Our results shed light on the novel therapeutic target of modulating cholesterol absorption in HD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Regulation of Lipid Metabolism and Health)
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Article
Characterization of Gut Microbiome in Korean Patients with Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 1013; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13031013 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new concept where the presence of both fatty liver and metabolic abnormality are necessary for diagnosis. Several studies have reported that altered gut microbiome is closely associated with metabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [...] Read more.
Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new concept where the presence of both fatty liver and metabolic abnormality are necessary for diagnosis. Several studies have reported that altered gut microbiome is closely associated with metabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the studies on MAFLD population are scarce. This prospective study aimed to identify differences in gut microbiome between patients with MAFLD and healthy controls in Korean population. In this study, patients with MAFLD and age, sex-matched healthy controls were included, and their stool samples were collected. Taxonomic composition of gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid pyrosequencing. Twenty-two MAFLD patients and 44 healthy controls were included. Taxonomic diversity was lower in patients with MAFLD in the aspect of alpha and beta diversity. The differences were also found at phylum, class, family, and genus levels between the two groups. Phylum Proteobacteria, family Enterobactereriaceae, genus Citrobacter abundance was significantly increased and genus Faecalibacterium was significantly decreased in patients with MAFLD. In addition, butyrate-producing bacteria were decreased and ethanol-producing bacteria were increased in patients with MAFLD. The composition of gut microbiome was different between MAFLD and healthy controls in Korean population. This could offer potential targets for therapeutic intervention in MAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
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