Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as products of intestinal bacterial metabolism, are particularly relevant in the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis. The most common studies of microbiome metabolites include butyric acid, propionic acid and acetic acid, which occur in varying proportions depending on diet, age, coexisting disease and other factors. During pregnancy, metabolic changes related to the protection of energy homeostasis are of fundamental importance for the developing fetus, its future metabolic fate and the mother’s health. SCFAs act as signaling molecules that regulate the body’s energy balance through G-protein receptors. GPR41 receptors affect metabolism through the microflora, while GPR43 receptors are recognized as a molecular link between diet, microflora, gastrointestinal tract, immunity and the inflammatory response. The possible mechanism by which the gut microflora may contribute to fat storage, as well as the occurrence of gestational insulin resistance, is blocking the expression of the fasting-induced adipose factor. SCFAs, in particular propionic acid via GPR, determine the development and metabolic programming of the fetus in pregnant women. The mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism during pregnancy are similar to those found in obese people and those with impaired microbiome and its metabolites. The implications of SCFAs and metabolic disorders during pregnancy are therefore critical to maternal health and neonatal development. In this review paper, we summarize the current knowledge about SCFAs, their potential impact and possible mechanisms of action in relation to maternal metabolism during pregnancy. Therefore, they constitute a contemporary challenge to practical nutritional therapy. Material and methods: The PubMed database were searched for “pregnancy”, “lipids”, “SCFA” in conjunction with “diabetes”, “hypertension”, and “microbiota”, and searches were limited to work published for a period not exceeding 20 years in the past. Out of 2927 publication items, 2778 papers were excluded from the analysis, due to being unrelated to the main topic, conference summaries and/or articles written in a language other than English, while the remaining 126 publications were included in the analysis.
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