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Review

Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy as a Model of Food Allergies

1
Pediatric Unit, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy
2
Specialty School of Paediatrics, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, via G.Massarenti n 11, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), University of Bologna, via G. Massarenti n.9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Elvira Verduci, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti and Diego Peroni
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 18 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 30 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cow's Milk and Allergy)
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in infants, and its prevalence has increased over recent years. In the present paper, we focus on CMA as a model of food allergies in children. Understanding the diagnostic features of CMA is essential in order to manage patients with this disorder, guide the use of an elimination diet, and find the best moment to start an oral food challenge (OFC) and liberalize the diet. To date, no shared tolerance markers for the diagnosis of food allergy have been identified, and OFC remains the gold standard. Recently, oral immunotherapy (OIT) has emerged as a new therapeutic strategy and has changed the natural history of CMA. Before this, patients had to strictly avoid the food allergen, resulting in a decline in quality of life and subsequent nutritional, social, and psychological impairments. Thanks to the introduction of OIT, the passive approach involving rigid exclusion has changed to a proactive one. Both the heterogeneity in the diagnostic process among the studies and the variability of OIT data limit the comprehension of the real epidemiology of CMA, and, consequentially, its natural history. Therefore, well-planned randomized controlled trials are needed to standardize CMA diagnosis, prevention, and treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cow’s milk allergy; oral food challenge; oral immunotherapy; diet; skin prick test; serum-specific IgE; breastfeeding cow’s milk allergy; oral food challenge; oral immunotherapy; diet; skin prick test; serum-specific IgE; breastfeeding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giannetti, A.; Toschi Vespasiani, G.; Ricci, G.; Miniaci, A.; di Palmo, E.; Pession, A. Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy as a Model of Food Allergies. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1525. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051525

AMA Style

Giannetti A, Toschi Vespasiani G, Ricci G, Miniaci A, di Palmo E, Pession A. Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy as a Model of Food Allergies. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1525. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051525

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giannetti, Arianna, Gaia Toschi Vespasiani, Giampaolo Ricci, Angela Miniaci, Emanuela di Palmo, and Andrea Pession. 2021. "Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy as a Model of Food Allergies" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1525. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13051525

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