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Nutraceuticals in Viral Infections: An Overview of the Immunomodulating Properties

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Via Roma 57, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergology, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, 20142 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Health Science, University of Milan, 20142 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Arved Weimann
Received: 19 May 2021 / Revised: 10 July 2021 / Accepted: 12 July 2021 / Published: 14 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Cow's Milk and Allergy)
Nutraceuticals, including vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, lactoferrin, polyphenols coenzyme Q, magnesium, and selenium, are implicated in the modulation of the complex molecular pathways involved in the immune response against viral pathogens. A common element of the activity of nutraceuticals is their ability to enhance the innate immune response against pathogens by acting on the major cellular subsets and inducing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides. In some cases, this action is accompanied by a direct antimicrobial effect, as evidenced in the specific case of lactoferrin. Furthermore, nutraceuticals act through complex molecular mechanisms to minimize the damage caused by the activation of the immune system against pathogens, reducing the oxidative damage, influencing the antigen presentation, enhancing the differentiation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, driving the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets, and modulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we review the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the immunomodulatory function of nutraceuticals, focusing on the most relevant aspects for the prevention and treatment of viral infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; resveratrol; vitamin A; vitamin D; zinc; lactoferrin; magnesium; selenium; coenzyme Q polyphenols; resveratrol; vitamin A; vitamin D; zinc; lactoferrin; magnesium; selenium; coenzyme Q
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costagliola, G.; Nuzzi, G.; Spada, E.; Comberiati, P.; Verduci, E.; Peroni, D.G. Nutraceuticals in Viral Infections: An Overview of the Immunomodulating Properties. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072410

AMA Style

Costagliola G, Nuzzi G, Spada E, Comberiati P, Verduci E, Peroni DG. Nutraceuticals in Viral Infections: An Overview of the Immunomodulating Properties. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costagliola, Giorgio, Giulia Nuzzi, Erika Spada, Pasquale Comberiati, Elvira Verduci, and Diego G. Peroni 2021. "Nutraceuticals in Viral Infections: An Overview of the Immunomodulating Properties" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2410. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13072410

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