Next Issue
Volume 13, September
Previous Issue
Volume 13, July

Nutrients, Volume 13, Issue 8 (August 2021) – 422 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A randomized controlled trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of the probiotic NVP-1704, a mixture of Lactobacillus reuteri NK33 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis NK98 on mental health and sleep. Individuals with subclinical symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia were randomly assigned to receive either NVP-1704 or a placebo for 8 weeks. After intervention, NVP-1704 treatment was found to be effective for the improvement of depression/anxiety symptoms and sleep quality. We also observed a decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels and the modulation of gut microbiota composition, including an increased population of Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae and decreased population of Enterobacteriaceae. Our findings suggest that probiotic NVP-1704 administration could be beneficial for mental health and sleep. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Weight Change in Post-Menopausal Women with Breast Cancer during Chemotherapy—Perspectives on Nutrition, Activity and Bone Metabolism: An Interim Analysis of a 5-Year Prospective Cohort
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2902; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082902 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Women with breast cancer are a growing population due to improved screening and treatment. It has been described that chemotherapy can negatively affect patients’ metabolism. The aim of this study is to assess weight gain during chemotherapy treatment in an interim analysis on [...] Read more.
Women with breast cancer are a growing population due to improved screening and treatment. It has been described that chemotherapy can negatively affect patients’ metabolism. The aim of this study is to assess weight gain during chemotherapy treatment in an interim analysis on an ongoing prospective cohort of women with early breast cancer. To help untangle the many possible reasons for weight change, we examine blood tests, Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs), and bone mineral density (BMD). We find that the 38 women that have measurements taken after chemotherapy have an average weight gain of 1.2 kg although not significant. Together with this, there is a significant drop in HDL cholesterol, an increase in triglycerides, and a non-significant tendency towards decreased insulin sensitivity. PROs show that although the women experience more pain and fatigue, they have higher activity levels. BMD is at an expected level according to age. All in all, we see an increased focus on physical activity and nutrition, leading to less severe metabolic changes as previously reported. However, even though more measures are taken, we still see an overall negative metabolic impact with unknown long-term implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis and Elderly Metabolism and Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Forsythia Fruit Prevents Fulminant Hepatitis in Mice and Ameliorates Inflammation in Murine Macrophages
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082901 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Forsythia Fruit (FF), the fruit of Forsythia suspensa, has been used since ancient times as an herbal medication in East Asia to treat inflammation, gonorrhea, and pharyngitis. However, the efficacy of FF against liver damage due to inflammation has not been studied. [...] Read more.
Forsythia Fruit (FF), the fruit of Forsythia suspensa, has been used since ancient times as an herbal medication in East Asia to treat inflammation, gonorrhea, and pharyngitis. However, the efficacy of FF against liver damage due to inflammation has not been studied. Here, we explored the protective effects of FF in a mouse hepatitis model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN) treatment. We measured inflammatory cytokine and aminotransferase levels in mouse blood and analyzed the effects of FF on inflammatory gene and protein expression levels in liver tissue. Our results show that FF treatment effectively lowers inflammatory cytokine and serum aminotransferase levels in mice and inhibits the expression of hepatic cytokine mRNA and inflammatory proteins. Furthermore, treatment with FF activated the antioxidant pathway HO-1/Nrf-2 and suppressed severe histological alteration in the livers of LPS/D-GalN-treated mice. Further investigation of the effects of FF on inflammatory reactions in LPS-stimulated macrophages showed that pretreatment with FF inhibits inflammatory mediator secretion and activation of inflammatory mechanisms both in a mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and in primary peritoneal macrophages. These results show that FF has potential worth as a candidate for the treatment of fulminant inflammatory reactions and subsequent liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Cost and Affordability of Healthy, Equitable and Sustainable Diets in Low Socioeconomic Groups in Australia
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2900; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082900 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Few Australians consume a healthy, equitable and more sustainable diet consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health problems. However, granular information on dietary intakes and affordability of recommended diets was lacking for low SEGs. [...] Read more.
Few Australians consume a healthy, equitable and more sustainable diet consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health problems. However, granular information on dietary intakes and affordability of recommended diets was lacking for low SEGs. The Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol was modified for low SEGs to align with relevant dietary intakes reported in the National Nutrition Survey 2011–2012(which included less healthy and more discretionary options than the broader population), household structures, food purchasing habits, and incomes. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets of low SEGs were calculated using prices of ‘standard brands’ and ‘cheapest options’. With ‘standard brands’, recommended diets cost less than habitual diets, but were unaffordable for low SEGs. With ‘cheapest options’, both diets were more affordable, but recommended diets cost more than habitual diets for some low SEGs, potentially contributing to perceptions that healthy food is unaffordable. The study confirms the need for an equity lens to better target dietary guidelines for low SEGs. It also highlights urgent policy action is needed to help improve affordability of recommended diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Healthy Eating in Relation to National Dietary Guidelines)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Pathogenesis of Musculoskeletal Deficits in Children and Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2899; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082899 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Musculoskeletal deficits are among the most commonly reported extra-intestinal manifestations and complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in those with Crohn’s disease. The adverse effects of IBD on bone and muscle are multifactorial, including the direct effects of underlying inflammatory disease processes, [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal deficits are among the most commonly reported extra-intestinal manifestations and complications of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in those with Crohn’s disease. The adverse effects of IBD on bone and muscle are multifactorial, including the direct effects of underlying inflammatory disease processes, nutritional deficits, and therapeutic effects. These factors also indirectly impact bone and muscle by interfering with regulatory pathways. Resultantly, individuals with IBD are at increased risk of osteoporosis and sarcopenia and associated musculoskeletal morbidity. In paediatric IBD, these factors may contribute to suboptimal bone and muscle accrual. This review evaluates the main pathogenic factors associated with musculoskeletal deficits in children and adults with IBD and summarises the current literature and understanding of the musculoskeletal phenotype in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Management for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Oxygen Sparing Effect of Bacteriotherapy in COVID-19
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2898; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082898 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Background: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. Methods: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. Results: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients’ survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Diet Intervention Study through Telemedicine Assistance for Systemic Nickel Allergy Syndrome Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2897; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082897 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: Restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic limited patients’ access to hospital care. The aims of this study were to assess dietary nutritional status, quality of life (QoL), and adherence to dietary therapy before and after 30-day personalized diet therapy through telenutrition tools [...] Read more.
Background: Restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic limited patients’ access to hospital care. The aims of this study were to assess dietary nutritional status, quality of life (QoL), and adherence to dietary therapy before and after 30-day personalized diet therapy through telenutrition tools in patients with systemic nickel allergic syndrome (SNAS). Methods: Each SNAS patient underwent the following allergological procedures: (a) face-to-face visit (nutritional visit and QoL evaluation) with prescription of one out of five personalized and balanced dietary plans different for calorie intake, (b) video call visit for dietary evaluation and assessment of adherence to diet after 15 days, and (c) video call visit for dietary and QoL evaluation and assessment of adherence to diet therapy after 30 days (end of study). Results: We enrolled 20 SNAS patients. After 15 and 30 days, we found a statistically significant improvement in anthropometric findings after diet therapy, a significant adherence rate to low-nickel diet (60% and 80%, respectively), and an improvement in QoL with an increase in almost all psychometric indices. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that telenutrition can be a valid tool to monitor nutritional status and adherence to balanced low-Ni diet positively affecting QoL in SNAS patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Effect of a Ketogenic Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet on Aerobic Capacity and Exercise Performance in Endurance Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2896; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082896 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1670
Abstract
A low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet has been proposed to enhance the fat utilization of muscle and the aerobic capacity of endurance athletes, thereby improving their exercise performance. However, it remains uncertain how the macronutrient intake shift from carbohydrate to fat affects endurance exercise [...] Read more.
A low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet has been proposed to enhance the fat utilization of muscle and the aerobic capacity of endurance athletes, thereby improving their exercise performance. However, it remains uncertain how the macronutrient intake shift from carbohydrate to fat affects endurance exercise training and performance. This study performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the effects of a ketogenic low-carbohydrate, high-fat (K-LCHF) diet on aerobic capacity and exercise performance among endurance athletes. Searches were carried out in five electronic databases, and we followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search included studies using an LCHF diet as an intervention protocol and compared data on factors such as maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) from the graded exercise test. In this case, 10 studies met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We did not find a significant effect of K-LCHF diet interventions on VO2max, time to exhaustion, HRmax or RPE. However, a significant overall effect in the substrate oxidation response to respiratory exchange rate was observed. The meta-analysis showed that K-LCHF diets did not affect aerobic capacity and exercise performance. Therefore, high-quality interventions of a K-LCHF diet are needed to illustrate its effect on various endurance training programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Nutrition in Diverse Populations)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Where Do Online Games Fit into the Health Behaviour Ecology of Emerging Adults: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2895; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082895 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Online video games are a common pastime for emerging adults (EAs). EAs are an age group that is of interest in health communication because habits formed during this life stage can cause or prevent disease later in life. Guided by three research questions, [...] Read more.
Online video games are a common pastime for emerging adults (EAs). EAs are an age group that is of interest in health communication because habits formed during this life stage can cause or prevent disease later in life. Guided by three research questions, this scoping review identifies the current state of research into socio-ecological influences on physical activity and diet behaviours of EAs. The review also examines the role that online video games play within this behavioural ecology. In total, 112 articles were found that focused on behavioural ecological influences for physical activity and diet behaviour among EAs. Seven of these articles focused on the impact of online video games, although only in conjunction with their influence on physical activity, identifying a gap in understanding the influence of online games on diet. Results show that online video games are currently under-researched in terms of impacts on physical activity and diet despite the prevalence of the use of these games within the EA cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Dietary Selenium Deficiency Partially Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Arsenic
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2894; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082894 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water is associated with diabetes in human pop-ulations throughout the world. Arsenic is believed to exert its diabetogenic effects via multiple mechanisms, including alterations to insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In the past, acute arsenicosis has been thought [...] Read more.
Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water is associated with diabetes in human pop-ulations throughout the world. Arsenic is believed to exert its diabetogenic effects via multiple mechanisms, including alterations to insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In the past, acute arsenicosis has been thought to be partially treatable with selenium supplementation, though a potential interaction between selenium and arsenic had not been evaluated under longer-term exposure models. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether selenium status may augment arsenic’s effects during chronic arsenic exposure. To test this possibility, mice were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water and provided ad libitum access to either a diet replete with selenium (Control) or deficient in selenium (SelD). Arsenic significantly improved glucose tolerance and decreased insulin secretion and β-cell function in vivo. Dietary selenium deficiency resulted in similar effects on glucose tolerance and insulin secretion, with significant interactions between arsenic and dietary conditions in select insulin-related parameters. The findings of this study highlight the complexity of arsenic’s metabolic effects and suggest that selenium deficiency may interact with arsenic exposure on β-cell-related physiological parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genetically Predicted Milk Intake and Risk of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2893; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082893 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 625
Abstract
Milk intake has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative diseases in observational studies. Nevertheless, whether the association is causal remains unknown. We adopted Mendelian randomization design to evaluate the potential causal association between milk intake and common neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), [...] Read more.
Milk intake has been associated with risk of neurodegenerative diseases in observational studies. Nevertheless, whether the association is causal remains unknown. We adopted Mendelian randomization design to evaluate the potential causal association between milk intake and common neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Genetic associations for neurodegenerative diseases were obtained from the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium (n = 80,094), FinnGen consortium (n = 176,899), AD GWAS (n = 63,926), Web-Based Study of Parkinson’s Disease (n = 308,518), PDGene (n = 108,990), and ALS GWAS (n = 80,610). Lactase persistence variant rs4988235 (LCT-13910 C > T) was used as the instrumental variable for milk intake. Genetically predicted higher milk intake was associated with a decreased risk of MS and AD and with an increased risk of PD. For each additional milk intake increasing allele, the odds ratios were 0.94 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.91–0.97; p = 1.51 × 10−4) for MS, 0.97 (0.94–0.99; p = 0.019) for AD and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.06–1.12, p = 9.30 × 10−9) for PD. Genetically predicted milk intake was not associated with ALS (odds ratio: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.94–1.01, p = 0.135). Our results suggest that genetically predicted milk intake is associated with a decreased risk of MS and AD but with an increased risk of PD. Further investigations are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Reduction of In Vivo Placental Amino Acid Transport Precedes the Development of Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Non-Human Primate
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2892; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082892 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport (AAT). However, it remains to be established if changes in AAT contribute to restricted fetal growth. We hypothesized that reduced in vivo placental AAT precedes the development of IUGR in baboons [...] Read more.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport (AAT). However, it remains to be established if changes in AAT contribute to restricted fetal growth. We hypothesized that reduced in vivo placental AAT precedes the development of IUGR in baboons with maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Baboons were fed either a control (ad libitum) or MNR diet (70% of control diet) from gestational day (GD) 30. At GD 140, in vivo transplacental AA transport was measured by infusing nine (13)C- or (2)H-labeled essential amino acids (EAAs) as a bolus into the maternal circulation at cesarean section. A fetal vein-to-maternal artery mole percent excess ratio for each EAA was measured. Microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) system A and system L transport activity were determined. Fetal and placental weights were not significantly different between MNR and control. In vivo, the fetal vein-to-maternal artery mole percent excess ratio was significantly decreased for tryptophan in MNR. MVM system A and system L activity was markedly reduced in MNR. Reduction of in vivo placental amino acid transport precedes fetal growth restriction in the non-human primate, suggesting that reduced placental amino acid transfer may contribute to IUGR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
No Correlation between Positive Fructose Hydrogen Breath Test and Clinical Symptoms in Children with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Retrospective Single-Centre Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2891; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082891 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 480
Abstract
Fructose malabsorption is regarded as one of the most common types of sugar intolerance. However, the correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and positive results in fructose hydrogen breath tests (HBTs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical importance of [...] Read more.
Fructose malabsorption is regarded as one of the most common types of sugar intolerance. However, the correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and positive results in fructose hydrogen breath tests (HBTs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical importance of positive fructose HBT by correlating the HBT results with clinical features in children with various gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical features and fructose HBT results were obtained from 323 consecutive children (2–18 years old, mean 10.7 ± 4.3 years) that were referred to the Tertiary Paediatric Gastroenterology Centre and diagnosed as having functional gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 114 out of 323 children (35.3%) had positive HBT results, of which 61 patients were females (53.5%) and 53 were males (46.5%). Children with positive HBT were significantly younger than children with negative HBT (9.0 vs. 11.6 years old; p < 0.001). The most frequent symptom among children with fructose malabsorption was recurrent abdominal pain (89.5%). Other important symptoms were diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, and flatulence. However, no correlation between positive fructose HBT results and any of the reported symptoms or general clinical features was found. In conclusion, positive fructose HBT in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders can be attributed to their younger age but not to some peculiar clinical feature of the disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Sensitivity: Causes and Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Allium hookeri Extracts Improve Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment via Activation of the Cholinergic System and Anti-Neuroinflammation in Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2890; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082890 - 23 Aug 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
Allium hookeri (AH) is a medicinal food that has been used in Southeast Asia for various physiological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of the cholinergic system and the anti-neuroinflammation effects of AH on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in [...] Read more.
Allium hookeri (AH) is a medicinal food that has been used in Southeast Asia for various physiological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the activation of the cholinergic system and the anti-neuroinflammation effects of AH on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) impaired the performance of the mice on the Y-maze test, passive avoidance test, and water maze test. However, the number of error actions was reduced in the AH groups supplemented with leaf and root extracts from AH. AH treatment improved working memory and avoidance times against electronic shock, increased step-through latency, and reduced the time to reach the escape zone in the water maze test. AH significantly improved the cholinergic system by decreasing acetylcholinesterase activity, and increasing acetylcholine concentration. The serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ) increased by scopolamine treatment were regulated by the administration of AH extracts. Overexpression of NF-κB signaling and cytokines in liver tissue due to scopolamine were controlled by administration of AH extracts. AH also significantly decreased Aβ and caspase-3 expression but increased NeuN and ChAT. The results suggest that AH extracts improve cognitive effects, and the root extracts are more effective in relieving the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. They have neuroprotective effects and reduce the development of neuroinflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Relationship between 25 Hydroxyvitamin D, Overweight/Obesity Status, Pro-Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Simplified Empirical Path Model
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082889 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Herein, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and overweight/obesity status, insulin resistance (IR), systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress (OS). Anthropometric and laboratory assessments of [...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Herein, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D status and overweight/obesity status, insulin resistance (IR), systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress (OS). Anthropometric and laboratory assessments of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and glycemic, pro-inflammatory and OS biomarkers were performed in a sample of 47 patients with T2DM who were divided into categories based on overweight and degree of obesity. The main findings were: the overweight/obesity status correlated negatively with the degree of serum 25(OH)D deficiency (ρ = −0.27) with a trend towards statistical significance (p = 0.069); the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was significantly different (p = 0.024) in patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, as was total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in patients with severe serum 25(OH)D deficiency as compared to those with 25(OH)D over 20 ng/mL (TOS: p = 0.007, OSI: p = 0.008); and 25(OH)D had a negative indirect effect on TOS by body mass index (BMI), but BMI was not a significant mediator of the studied relationship. In a setting of overweight and increasing degree of obesity, patients with T2DM did not display decreasing values of 25(OH)D. Subjects with the lowest values of 25(OH)D presented the highest values of BMI. Patients with 25(OH)D deficiency were more insulin resistant and showed increased OS but no elevated systemic inflammation. The negative effect of 25(OH)D on TOS did not seem to involve BMI as a mediator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D in Insulin Resistance)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Parental Reports on Early Autism Behaviors in Their Children with Fragile X Syndrome as a Function of Infant Feeding
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2888; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082888 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 536
Abstract
This study evaluates the prevalence of autistic behaviors in fragile X syndrome as a function of infant diet. Retrospective survey data from the Fragile X Syndrome Nutrition Study, which included data on infant feeding and caregiver-reported developmental milestones for 190 children with [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the prevalence of autistic behaviors in fragile X syndrome as a function of infant diet. Retrospective survey data from the Fragile X Syndrome Nutrition Study, which included data on infant feeding and caregiver-reported developmental milestones for 190 children with fragile X syndrome enrolled in the Fragile X Online Registry with Accessible Database (FORWARD), were analyzed. Exploratory, sex-specific associations were found linking the use of soy-based infant formula with worse autistic behaviors related to language in females and self-injurious behavior in males. These findings prompt prospective evaluation of the effects of soy-based infant formula on disease comorbidities in fragile X syndrome, a rare disorder for which newborn screening could be implemented if there was an intervention. Gastrointestinal problems were the most common reason cited for switching to soy-based infant formula. Thus, these findings also support the study of early gastrointestinal problems in fragile X syndrome, which may underly the development and severity of disease comorbidities. In conjunction with comorbidity data from the previous analyses of the Fragile X Syndrome Nutrition Study, the findings indicate that premutation fragile X mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Early Life and Health Outcome)
Article
Sargassum fusiforme Alginate Relieves Hyperglycemia and Modulates Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolites in Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2887; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082887 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
Sargassum fusiforme alginate (SF-Alg) possess many pharmacological activities, including hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic. However, the hypoglycemic mechanisms of SF-Alg remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of SF-Alg on high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes [...] Read more.
Sargassum fusiforme alginate (SF-Alg) possess many pharmacological activities, including hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic. However, the hypoglycemic mechanisms of SF-Alg remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of SF-Alg on high-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) mice. SF-Alg intervention was found to significantly reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC), while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and improving glucose tolerance. In addition, administrating SF-Alg to diabetic mice moderately attenuated pathological changes in adipose, hepatic, and heart tissues as well as skeletal muscle, and diminished oxidative stress. To probe the underlying mechanisms, we further analyzed the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, as well as metabolites by non-targeted metabolomics. Here, SF-Alg significantly increased some benign bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Akkermansia Alloprevotella, Weissella and Enterorhabdus), and significantly decreased harmful bacteria (Turicibacter and Helicobacter). Meanwhile, SF-Alg dramatically decreased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) in the colon of T2D mice, suggesting a positive benefit of SF-Alg as an adjvant agent for T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Chronic Nutrition Impact Symptoms Are Associated with Decreased Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Diet Quality in a Pilot Study of Long-Term Post-Radiation Head and Neck Cancer Survivors
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2886; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082886 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Background: As a result of tumor location and treatment that is aggressive, head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience an array of symptoms impacting the ability and desire to eat termed nutrition impact symptoms (NISs). Despite increasing cancer survival time, the majority of [...] Read more.
Background: As a result of tumor location and treatment that is aggressive, head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience an array of symptoms impacting the ability and desire to eat termed nutrition impact symptoms (NISs). Despite increasing cancer survival time, the majority of research studies examining the impact of NISs have been based on clinical samples of HNC patients during the acute phase of treatment. NISs are often chronic and persist beyond the completion of treatment or may develop as late side effects. Therefore, our research team examined chronic NIS complications on HNC survivors’ functional status, quality of life, and diet quality. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 HNC survivors who were at least 6 months post-radiation. Self-reported data on demographics, NISs, quality of life, and usual diet over the past year were obtained. Objective measures of functional status included the short physical performance battery and InBody© 270 body composition testing. NISs were coded so a lower score indicated lower symptom burden, (range 4–17) and dichotomized as ≤10 vs. >10, the median in the dataset. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed between the dichotomized NIS summary score and continuous quality of life and functional status outcomes. Diet quality for HNC survivors was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015). Wilcoxon rank sum tests examined the difference between the HNC HEI-2015 as compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data calculated using the population ratio method. Results: A lower NIS score was statistically associated with higher posttreatment lean muscle mass (p = 0.002). A lower NIS score was associated with higher functional (p = 0.0006), physical (p = 0.0007), emotional (p = 0.007), and total (p < 0.0001) quality of life. Compared to NHANES controls, HNC survivors reported a significantly lower HEI-2015 diet quality score (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Lower NIS burden was associated with higher lean muscle mass and functional, physical, emotional, and total quality of life in post-radiation HNC survivors. HNC survivors reported a significantly lower total HEI-2015 as compared to healthy NHANES controls, providing support for the hypothesis that chronic NIS burden impacts the desire and ability to eat. The effects of this pilot study were strong enough to be detected by straight forward statistical approaches and warrant a larger longitudinal study. For survivors most impacted by NIS burden, multidisciplinary post-radiation exercise and nutrition-based interventions to manage NISs and improve functional status, quality of life, and diet quality in this survivor population are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Diet and Physical Activity on Cancer Prevention and Control)
Article
Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Cnr1 Gene Expression in Male Rat Offspring
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2885; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082885 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 519
Abstract
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged that exposure to a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) provokes changes in the structure, function, and development of the offspring’s brain and may induce several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric illnesses. The aims of this study were to evaluate [...] Read more.
In recent years, strong evidence has emerged that exposure to a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) provokes changes in the structure, function, and development of the offspring’s brain and may induce several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric illnesses. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation on depressive-like behavior and Cnr1 gene expression (encoding the CB1 receptor) in brain structures of rat offspring and to investigate the epigenetic mechanism involved in this gene expression. We found that a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation induced a depressive-like phenotype at postnatal days (PNDs) 28 and 63. We found that a maternal HFD decreased the Cnr1 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex with the increased levels of miR-212-5p and methylation of CpG islands at the Cnr1 promoter and reduced the level of Cnr1 gene expression in the dorsal striatum with an increased level of miR-154-3p in adolescent male offspring. A contrasting effect of a maternal HFD was observed in the hippocampus, where upregulation of Cnr1 gene expression was accompanied by a decrease of miR-154-3p (at PNDs 28 and 63) and miR-212-5p (at PND 63) expression and methylation of CpG islands at the Cnr1 promoter in male offspring. In summary, we showed that a maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation triggered several epigenetic mechanisms in the brains of rat offspring, which may be related to long-lasting alterations in the next generation and produce behavioral changes in offspring, including a depressive-like phenotype. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes in Vietnam: Marketing Practices by the Industry and Perceptions of Caregivers and Health Workers
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082884 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Background: The promotion of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) is an important barrier to successful breastfeeding. Objective: To examine the enactment and implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (the Code) in Vietnam with a focus on marketing practices by the baby food [...] Read more.
Background: The promotion of breastmilk substitutes (BMS) is an important barrier to successful breastfeeding. Objective: To examine the enactment and implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes (the Code) in Vietnam with a focus on marketing practices by the baby food industry and perceptions of caregivers, health workers, and policy makers. Methods: From May to July 2020, we conducted a mixed-method, cross-sectional study including a survey of 268 pregnant women and 726 mothers of infants aged 0–11 months and in-depth interviews with a subset of interviewed women (n = 39), policy makers, media executives, and health workers (n = 31). Results: In the previous 30 days, two mothers (out of 726) participating in the quantitative survey reported that health workers had recommended BMS, at private hospitals in both cases. In-depth interviews with health workers showed that hospitals have internal procedures to prevent the promotion of BMS by health workers. However, companies employed representatives to promote products not covered under the Code (e.g., commercial milk formula for pregnant women) at antenatal care visits and by gaining contact information from women and using this information to promote BMS outside the hospital, often on social media. In the 30 days preceding the survey, one-fifth of pregnant women were exposed to promotions of commercial milk formula for pregnant women and 7.1% to promotions of BMS. Among mothers of infants, 7.3% and 10.7% of respondents with infants aged 0–5 and 6–11 months, respectively, were exposed to some form of BMS promotion in the past 30 days. Around the time of birth, parents commonly brought BMS to maternity facilities (52.5%) or purchased it nearby (35.4%). Conclusions: Although Vietnam has a strong regulatory environment for the protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding, there are implementation, monitoring, and enforcement gaps. Stronger enforcement of national policies to regulate the presence of BMS industry representatives in health facilities—both public and private—and the promotion of BMS products on digital platforms are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Public Health: Principles, Policies, and Practice)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Urinary Tartaric Acid, a Biomarker of Wine Intake, Correlates with Lower Total and LDL Cholesterol
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2883; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082883 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 892
Abstract
Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, [...] Read more.
Postmenopausal women are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to changes in lipid profile and body fat, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary tartaric acid, a biomarker of wine consumption, with anthropometric (weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio), blood pressure, and biochemical variables (blood glucose and lipid profile) that may be affected during the menopausal transition. This sub-study of the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial included a sample of 230 women aged 60–80 years with high cardiovascular risk at baseline. Urine samples were diluted and filtered, and tartaric acid was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Correlations between tartaric acid and the study variables were adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, physical activity, BMI, cholesterol-lowering, antihypertensive, and insulin treatment, total energy intake, and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and raisins. A strong association was observed between wine consumption and urinary tartaric acid (0.01 μg/mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01, 0.01), p-value < 0.001). Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were inversely correlated with urinary tartaric acid (−3.13 μg/mg (−5.54, −0.71), p-value = 0.016 and −3.03 μg/mg (−5.62, −0.42), p-value = 0.027, respectively), whereas other biochemical and anthropometric variables were unrelated. The results suggest that wine consumption may have a positive effect on cardiovascular health in postmenopausal women, underpinning its nutraceutical properties. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Edible Plant Sprouts: Health Benefits, Trends, and Opportunities for Novel Exploration
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2882; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082882 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 786
Abstract
The consumption of plant sprouts as part of human day-to-day diets is gradually increasing, and their health benefit is attracting interest across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this review was to (a) critically evaluate the phytochemicals in selected sprouts (alfalfa, buckwheat, broccoli, and [...] Read more.
The consumption of plant sprouts as part of human day-to-day diets is gradually increasing, and their health benefit is attracting interest across multiple disciplines. The purpose of this review was to (a) critically evaluate the phytochemicals in selected sprouts (alfalfa, buckwheat, broccoli, and red cabbage), (b) describe the health benefits of sprouts, (c) assess the recent advances in sprout production, (d) rigorously evaluate their safety, and (e) suggest directions that merit special consideration for further novel research on sprouts. Young shoots are characterized by high levels of health-benefitting phytochemicals. Their utility as functional ingredients have been extensively described. Tremendous advances in the production and safety of sprouts have been made over the recent past and numerous reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing their nutritional and medicinal properties. However, subjects such as application of sprouted seed flours in processed products, utilizing sprouts as leads in the synthesis of nanoparticles, and assessing the dynamics of a relationship between sprouts and gut health require special attention for future clinical exploration. Sprouting is an effective strategy allowing manipulation of phytochemicals in seeds to improve their health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Acceptability and Willingness to Pay for a Meal Kit Program for African American Families with Low Income: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2881; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082881 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Food insecurity is a persistent issue among individuals with low income and is associated with various nutrition- and health-related consequences. Creative approaches to increasing food access should be investigated as possible solutions. Meal kits, which are boxes or bags of fresh and shelf-stable [...] Read more.
Food insecurity is a persistent issue among individuals with low income and is associated with various nutrition- and health-related consequences. Creative approaches to increasing food access should be investigated as possible solutions. Meal kits, which are boxes or bags of fresh and shelf-stable ingredients for one or more meals, along with a step-by-step recipe showing how to cook each meal at home, may serve as a creative solution. Meal kits have historically been marketed to higher-income demographics. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the utilization, acceptability, and willingness to pay for a healthy meal kit program among African American main food preparers with children and low income (n = 36). Participants received a healthy meal kit with three recipes and ingredients, a cooking incentive, and a nutrition handout weekly for six weeks. Data were collected on participants’ use, acceptability, and willingness to pay for the meal kits and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The intervention was highly utilized, and participants reported high acceptability ratings for most recipes. After the intervention, participants were willing to pay $88.61 ± 47.47 for a meal kit with three meals, each with four portions, which was higher than indicated at baseline and similar to the cost to produce the kits. Meal kits may offer a creative solution to improving food access if affordable for families with low income. Full article
Article
Breastfeeding and Overweight in European Preschoolers: The ToyBox Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2880; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082880 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 593
Abstract
The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) include risk reduction of later overweight and obesity. We aimed to analyse the association between breastfeeding practices and overweight/obesity among preschool children participating in the ToyBox study. Data from children in the six countries, participating in the ToyBox-study [...] Read more.
The benefits of breastfeeding (BF) include risk reduction of later overweight and obesity. We aimed to analyse the association between breastfeeding practices and overweight/obesity among preschool children participating in the ToyBox study. Data from children in the six countries, participating in the ToyBox-study (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain) 7554 children/families and their age is 3.5–5.5 years, 51.9% were boys collected cross-sectionally in 2012. The questionnaires included parents’ self-reported data on their weight, height, socio-demographic status, and infant feeding practices. Measurements of preschool children’s weight and height were done by trained researchers using standard protocols and equipment. The ever breastfeeding rate in the total sample was 85.0% (n = 5777). Only 6.3% (n = 428) of the children from the general sample were exclusively breastfed (EBF) for the duration of the first six months. EBF for four to six months was significantly (p < 0.001) less likely among mothers with formal education < 12 years (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.61; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.85), smoking throughout pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.24–0.62), overweight before pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.67; 95%CI 0.47–0.95) and ≤25 years old. The median duration of any breastfeeding was five months. The prevalence of exclusive formula feeding during the first five months in the general sample was about 12% (n = 830). The prevalence of overweight and obesity at preschool age was 8.0% (n = 542) and 2.8% (n = 190), respectively. The study did not identify any significant association between breastfeeding practices and obesity in childhood when adjusted for relevant confounding factors (p > 0.05). It is likely that sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with breastfeeding practices may have an impact on childhood obesity. The identified lower than desirable rates and duration of breastfeeding practices should prompt enhanced efforts for effective promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding across Europe, and in particular in regions with low BF rates. Full article
Article
Extensive Study of Breast Milk and Infant Growth: Protocol of the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF)
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2879; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082879 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Growth and nutrition during early life have been strongly linked to future health and metabolic risks. The Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), a longitudinal birth cohort of 2229 mother–infant pairs, was set up in 2001 to investigate early life determinant factors of infant [...] Read more.
Growth and nutrition during early life have been strongly linked to future health and metabolic risks. The Cambridge Baby Growth Study (CBGS), a longitudinal birth cohort of 2229 mother–infant pairs, was set up in 2001 to investigate early life determinant factors of infant growth and body composition in the UK setting. To carry out extensive profiling of breastmilk intakes and composition in relation to infancy growth, the Cambridge Baby Growth and Breastfeeding Study (CBGS-BF) was established upon the original CBGS. The strict inclusion criteria were applied, focusing on a normal birth weight vaginally delivered infant cohort born of healthy and non-obese mothers. Crucially, only infants who were exclusively breastfed for the first 6 weeks of life were retained in the analysed study sample. At each visit from birth, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and then at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, longitudinal anthropometric measurements and blood spot collections were conducted. Infant body composition was assessed using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) at 6 weeks and 3 months of age. Breast milk was collected for macronutrients and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) measurements. Breast milk intake volume was also estimated, as well as sterile breastmilk and infant stool collection for microbiome study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Potential Benefits of Probiotics and Prebiotics for Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2878; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082878 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 746
Abstract
Among cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, coronary heart disease and stroke are the most well-known and extensively studied. The onset and progression of CVD is associated with multiple risk factors, among which, gut microbiota has received much [...] Read more.
Among cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, coronary heart disease and stroke are the most well-known and extensively studied. The onset and progression of CVD is associated with multiple risk factors, among which, gut microbiota has received much attention in the past two decades. Gut microbiota, the microbial community colonizing in the gut, plays a prominent role in human health. In particular, gut dysbiosis is directly related to many acute or chronic dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system (CVS) in the host. Earlier studies have demonstrated that the pathogenesis of CVD is strongly linked to intestinal microbiota imbalance and inflammatory responses. Probiotics and prebiotics conferring various health benefits on the host are emerging as promising therapeutic interventions for many diseases. These two types of food supplements have the potential to alleviate the risks of CVD through improving the levels of several cardiovascular markers, such as total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and certain cytokines involved in the inflammatory response. In this review, we focus mainly on the preventive effects of probiotics and prebiotics on CVD via rebalancing the structural and functional changes in gut microbiota and maintaining immune homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Prebiotics in Cardiovascular Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Nutritional Imbalances in Adult Celiac Patients Following a Gluten-Free Diet
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2877; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082877 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 659
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, whose only effective treatment is a gluten-free diet (GFD). It is characterized by the atrophy of the intestinal villi that leads to altered nutrient absorption. This study describes the nutritional imbalances [...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, whose only effective treatment is a gluten-free diet (GFD). It is characterized by the atrophy of the intestinal villi that leads to altered nutrient absorption. This study describes the nutritional imbalances which may be found in adults with CD following a GFD. During the first year of treatment, deficiencies will overcome as the intestinal mucosa recovers. Thus, biochemical data will show this progression, together with the decrease in symptoms. In contrast, in the long term, when a strict GFD is followed and mucosal recovery is achieved, analyzing nutrient intake makes more sense. Macronutrient consumption is characterized by its low complex carbohydrate and fiber intakes, and high fat (especially SFA) and sugar intakes. This profile has been related to the consumption of GFP and their nutritional composition, in addition to unbalanced dietary habits. The most notable deficiencies in micronutrients are usually those of iron, calcium and magnesium and vitamin D, E and some of group B. It is necessary to follow up patients with CD and to promote nutritional education among them, since it could help not only to achieve a gluten free but also a balanced diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Deficiency in Celiac Disease: Current Perspective)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Is the Activity-Based Anorexia Model a Reliable Method of Presenting Peripheral Clinical Features of Anorexia Nervosa?
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2876; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082876 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Anorexia nervosa (AN) causes the highest number of deaths among all psychiatric disorders. Reduction in food intake and hyperactivity/increased anxiety observed in AN are also the core features of the activity-based anorexia animal model (ABA). Our aim was to assess how the acute [...] Read more.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) causes the highest number of deaths among all psychiatric disorders. Reduction in food intake and hyperactivity/increased anxiety observed in AN are also the core features of the activity-based anorexia animal model (ABA). Our aim was to assess how the acute ABA protocol mimics common AN complications, including gonadal and cardiovascular dysfunctions, depending on gender, age, and initial body weight, to form a comprehensive description of ABA as a reliable research tool. Wheel running, body weight, and food intake of adolescent female and male rats were monitored. Electrocardiography, heart rate variability, systolic blood pressure, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements were performed. Immediately after euthanasia, tissue fragments and blood were collected for further analysis. Uterine weight was 2 times lower in ABA female rats, and ovarian tissue exhibited a reduced number of antral follicles and decreased expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Cardiovascular measurements revealed autonomic decompensation with prolongation of QRS complex and QT interval. The ABA model is a reliable research tool for presenting the breakdown of adaptation mechanisms observed in severe AN. Cardiac and hormonal features of ABA with underlying altered neuroendocrine pathways create a valid phenotype of a human disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Consumption of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract Improves Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Non-Resistance Trained Men and Women: A Double-Blind Randomised Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2875; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082875 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Background: Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may protect against exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and facilitate a faster recovery of muscle function. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on indices of muscle damage and recovery following a bout of [...] Read more.
Background: Blackcurrant is rich in anthocyanins that may protect against exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and facilitate a faster recovery of muscle function. We examined the effects of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on indices of muscle damage and recovery following a bout of strenuous isokinetic resistance exercise. Methods: Using a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel design, twenty-seven healthy participants received either a 3 g·day−1 NZBC extract (n = 14) or the placebo (PLA) (n = 13) for 8 days prior to and 4 days following 60 strenuous concentric and eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle on an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle soreness (using a visual analogue scale), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), range of motion (ROM) and blood creatine kinase (CK) were assessed before (0 h) and after (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) exercise. Results: Consumption of NZBC extract resulted in faster recovery of baseline MVC (p = 0.04), attenuated muscle soreness at 24 h (NZBC: 21 ± 10 mm vs. PLA: 40 ± 23 mm, p = 0.02) and 48 h (NZBC: 22 ± 17 vs. PLA: 44 ± 26 mm, p = 0.03) and serum CK concentration at 96 h (NZBC: 635 ± 921 UL vs. PLA: 4021 ± 4319 UL, p = 0.04) following EIMD. Conclusions: Consumption of NZBC extract prior to and following a bout of eccentric exercise attenuates muscle damage and improves functional recovery. These findings are of practical importance in recreationally active and potentially athletic populations, who may benefit from accelerated recovery following EIMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A New Disease Concept in the Age of Processed Foods—Phosphorus-Burden Disease; including CKD–MBD Concrete Analysis and the Way to Solution
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2874; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082874 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
In 2012, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) established the order of correction of P, corrected Ca (cCa), and whole PTH (w-PTH) in the treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Metabolic Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) as P-first. However, there is no report that analyzes whether [...] Read more.
In 2012, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) established the order of correction of P, corrected Ca (cCa), and whole PTH (w-PTH) in the treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Metabolic Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) as P-first. However, there is no report that analyzes whether this rule is in line with reality and what the adequate rate of P is. Therefore, we analyzed the test values of our 48 patients during the year of 2019 and examined the validity of the results. The results showed that the adequate range rates were 70.8% for P, 100% for cCa, and 89.6% for w-PTH. This result is better than the JSDT Web-based Analysis of Dialysis Data Archives (WADDA) P adequacy rate of 66.2%. Although the guideline is P-first, it is often the case that we cannot reach the adequate level; therefore, healthcare professionals and patients often blame each other. We believe that this is due to the mismatch between the modern era of processed foods covered with P additives and treatment methods (P intake restriction and P-binders). The development of processed foods with P additives has brought light and darkness to mankind. The light side is freedom from starvation, and the dark side is a new condition caused by P burden: P burden disease including CKD-MBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Minerals Metabolism and Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
The Accumulation and Molecular Effects of Trimethylamine N-Oxide on Metabolic Tissues: It’s Not All Bad
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2873; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13082873 - 21 Aug 2021
Viewed by 688
Abstract
Since elevated serum levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were first associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), TMAO research among chronic diseases has grown exponentially. We now know that serum TMAO accumulation begins with dietary choline metabolism across the microbiome-liver-kidney axis, which [...] Read more.
Since elevated serum levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) were first associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), TMAO research among chronic diseases has grown exponentially. We now know that serum TMAO accumulation begins with dietary choline metabolism across the microbiome-liver-kidney axis, which is typically dysregulated during pathogenesis. While CVD research links TMAO to atherosclerotic mechanisms in vascular tissue, its molecular effects on metabolic tissues are unclear. Here we report the current standing of TMAO research in metabolic disease contexts across relevant tissues including the liver, kidney, brain, adipose, and muscle. Since poor blood glucose management is a hallmark of metabolic diseases, we also explore the variable TMAO effects on insulin resistance and insulin production. Among metabolic tissues, hepatic TMAO research is the most common, whereas its effects on other tissues including the insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are largely unexplored. Studies on diseases including obesity, diabetes, liver diseases, chronic kidney disease, and cognitive diseases reveal that TMAO effects are unique under pathologic conditions compared to healthy controls. We conclude that molecular TMAO effects are highly context-dependent and call for further research to clarify the deleterious and beneficial molecular effects observed in metabolic disease research. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop