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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 10 (May-2 2022) – 189 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Breastfeeding as a measure to prevent obesity in children and adolescents has produced conflicting results due to differences in study design, ethnicities, confounding factors, and the definition of obesity itself. Additional metabolic indicators were recommended to be combined as outcome variables when exploring the impact of breastfeeding on obesity risk. This original study indicated the benefits of breastfeeding might begin to wane around the age of 12 months, and prolonged breastfeeding might be associated with increased risks of different obesity phenotypes among children and adolescents. However, the increased risks might be largely offset by a favorable lifestyle such as healthy diet, limited screen time, adequate physical activity, and sufficient sleep duration. View this paper
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Article
Reduction of De Novo Lipogenesis Mediates Beneficial Effects of Isoenergetic Diets on Fatty Liver: Mechanistic Insights from the MEDEA Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2178; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102178 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Background: Non-alcoholic liver steatosis (NAS) results from an imbalance between hepatic lipid storage, disposal, and partitioning. A multifactorial diet high in fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyphenols, and vitamins D, E, and C reduces NAS in [...] Read more.
Background: Non-alcoholic liver steatosis (NAS) results from an imbalance between hepatic lipid storage, disposal, and partitioning. A multifactorial diet high in fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyphenols, and vitamins D, E, and C reduces NAS in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) by 40% compared to a MUFA-rich diet. We evaluated whether dietary effects on NAS are mediated by changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) activity, and/or β-oxidation. Methods: According to a randomized parallel group study design, 37 individuals with T2D completed an 8-week isocaloric intervention with a MUFA diet (n = 20) or multifactorial diet (n = 17). Before and after the intervention, liver fat content was evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, serum triglyceride fatty acid concentrations measured by gas chromatography, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate by enzymatic method, and DNL and SCD-1 activity assessed by calculating the palmitic acid/linoleic acid (C16:0/C18:2 n6) and palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid (C16:1/C16:0) ratios, respectively. Results: Compared to baseline, mean ± SD DNL significantly decreased after the multifactorial diet (2.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.0001) but did not change after the MUFA diet (1.9 ± 1.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9, p = 0.949), with a significant difference between the two interventions (p = 0.004). The mean SCD-1 activity also decreased after the multifactorial diet (0.13 ± 0.05 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03; p = 0.001), but with no significant difference between interventions (p = 0.205). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations did not change significantly after the MUFA or multifactorial diet. Changes in the DNL index significantly and positively correlated with changes in liver fat (r = 0.426; p = 0.009). Conclusions: A diet rich in multiple beneficial dietary components (fiber, polyphenols, MUFAs, PUFAs, and other antioxidants) compared to a diet rich only in MUFAs further reduces liver fat accumulation through the inhibition of DNL. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT03380416. Full article
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Article
Identification of Human Brain Proteins for Bitter-Sweet Taste Perception: A Joint Proteome-Wide and Transcriptome-Wide Association Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102177 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Objective: Bitter or sweet beverage perception is associated with alterations in brain structure and function. Our aim is to analyze the genetic association between bitter or sweet beverage perception and human brain proteins. Materials and methods: In our study, 8356 and 11,518 proteins [...] Read more.
Objective: Bitter or sweet beverage perception is associated with alterations in brain structure and function. Our aim is to analyze the genetic association between bitter or sweet beverage perception and human brain proteins. Materials and methods: In our study, 8356 and 11,518 proteins were first collected from two reference datasets of human brain proteomes, the ROS/MAP and Banner. The bitter or sweet beverage perception-related proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) were then conducted by integrating recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data (n = 422,300) of taste perception with human brain proteomes. The human brain gene expression profiles were collected from two reference datasets, including the brain RNA-seq (CBR) and brain RNA-seq splicing (CBRS). The taste perception-related transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) were finally performed by integrating the same GWAS data with human brain gene expression profiles to validate the PWAS findings. Results: In PWAS, four statistically significant proteins were identified using the ROS/MAP and then replicated using the Banner reference dataset (all permutated p < 0.05), including ABCG2 for total bitter beverages and tea, CPNE1 for total bitter beverage, ACTR1B for artificially sweetened beverages, FLOT2 for alcoholic bitter beverages and total sweet beverages. In TWAS analysis, six statistically significant genes were detected by CBR and confirmed by the CBRS reference dataset (all permutated p < 0.05), including PIGG for total bitter beverages and non-alcoholic bitter beverages, C3orf18 for total bitter beverages, ZSWIM7 for non-alcoholic bitter beverages, PEX7 for coffee, PKP4 for tea and RPLP2 for grape juice. Further comparison of the PWAS and TWAS found three common statistically significant proteins/genes identified from the Banner and CBR reference datasets, including THBS4 for total bitter beverages, CA4 for non-alcoholic bitter beverages, LIAS for non-grape juices. Conclusions: Our results support the potential effect of bitter or sweet beverage perception on brain function and identify several candidate brain proteins for bitter or sweet beverage perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Taste and Olfaction in Nutrition and Health)
Communication
Glucose Stimulates Gut Motility in Fasted and Fed Conditions: Potential Involvement of a Nitric Oxide Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102176 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 574
Abstract
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a duodenal hypermotility in postprandial conditions that favors hyperglycemia and insulin resistance via the gut-brain axis. Enterosynes, molecules produced within the gut with effects on the enteric nervous system, have been recently discovered and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with a duodenal hypermotility in postprandial conditions that favors hyperglycemia and insulin resistance via the gut-brain axis. Enterosynes, molecules produced within the gut with effects on the enteric nervous system, have been recently discovered and pointed to as potential key modulators of the glycemia. Indeed, targeting the enteric nervous system that controls gut motility is now considered as an innovative therapeutic way in T2D to limit intestinal glucose absorption and restore the gut-brain axis to improve insulin sensitivity. So far, little is known about the role of glucose on duodenal contraction in fasted and fed states in normal and diabetic conditions. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate these effects in adult mice. (2) Methods: Gene-expression level of glucose transporters (SGLT-1 and GLUT2) were quantified in the duodenum and jejunum of normal and diabetic mice fed with an HFD. The effect of glucose at different concentrations on duodenal and jejunal motility was studied ex vivo using an isotonic sensor in fasted and fed conditions in both normal chow and HFD mice. (3) Results: Both SGLT1 and GLUT2 expressions were increased in the duodenum (47 and 300%, respectively) and jejunum (75% for GLUT2) of T2D mice. We observed that glucose stimulates intestinal motility in fasted (200%) and fed (400%) control mice via GLUT2 by decreasing enteric nitric oxide release (by 600%), a neurotransmitter that inhibits gut contractions. This effect was not observed in diabetic mice, suggesting that glucose sensing and mechanosensing are altered during T2D. (4) Conclusions: Glucose acts as an enterosyne to control intestinal motility and glucose absorption through the enteric nervous system. Our data demonstrate that GLUT2 and a reduction of NO production could both be involved in this stimulatory contracting effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Fructose and Glucose Metabolism for Human Health)
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Article
Exposure to the Amino Acids Histidine, Lysine, and Threonine Reduces mTOR Activity and Affects Neurodevelopment in a Human Cerebral Organoid Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2175; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102175 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 821
Abstract
Evidence of the impact of nutrition on human brain development is compelling. Previous in vitro and in vivo results show that three specific amino acids, histidine, lysine, and threonine, synergistically inhibit mTOR activity and behavior. Therefore, the prenatal availability of these amino acids [...] Read more.
Evidence of the impact of nutrition on human brain development is compelling. Previous in vitro and in vivo results show that three specific amino acids, histidine, lysine, and threonine, synergistically inhibit mTOR activity and behavior. Therefore, the prenatal availability of these amino acids could be important for human neurodevelopment. However, methods to study the underlying mechanisms in a human model of neurodevelopment are limited. Here, we pioneer the use of human cerebral organoids to investigate the impact of amino acid supplementation on neurodevelopment. In this study, cerebral organoids were exposed to 10 mM and 50 mM of the amino acids threonine, histidine, and lysine. The impact was determined by measuring mTOR activity using Western blots, general cerebral organoid size, and gene expression by RNA sequencing. Exposure to threonine, histidine, and lysine led to decreased mTOR activity and markedly reduced organoid size, supporting findings in rodent studies. RNA sequencing identified comprehensive changes in gene expression, with enrichment in genes related to specific biological processes (among which are mTOR signaling and immune function) and to specific cell types, including proliferative precursor cells, microglia, and astrocytes. Altogether, cerebral organoids are responsive to nutritional exposure by increasing specific amino acid concentrations and reflect findings from previous rodent studies. Threonine, histidine, and lysine exposure impacts the early development of human cerebral organoids, illustrated by the inhibition of mTOR activity, reduced size, and altered gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Review
On the Pathogenicity of the Oral Biofilm: A Critical Review from a Biological, Evolutionary, and Nutritional Point of View
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102174 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Plaque control is one of the most recommended approaches in the prevention and therapy of caries and periodontal diseases. However, although most individuals in industrialized countries already perform daily oral hygiene, caries and periodontal diseases still are the most common diseases of mankind. [...] Read more.
Plaque control is one of the most recommended approaches in the prevention and therapy of caries and periodontal diseases. However, although most individuals in industrialized countries already perform daily oral hygiene, caries and periodontal diseases still are the most common diseases of mankind. This raises the question of whether plaque control is really a causative and effective approach to the prevention of these diseases. From an evolutionary, biological, and nutritional perspective, dental biofilms have to be considered a natural phenomenon, whereas several changes in human lifestyle factors during modern evolution are not “natural”. These lifestyle factors include the modern “Western diet” (rich in sugar and saturated fats and low in micronutrients), smoking, sedentary behavior, and continuous stress. This review hypothesizes that not plaque itself but rather these modern, unnatural lifestyle factors are the real causes of the high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases besides several other non-communicable diseases. Accordingly, applying evolutionary and lifestyle medicine in dentistry would offer a causative approach against oral and common diseases, which would not be possible with oral hygiene approaches used on their own. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interrelationships between Nutrition and the Dental Profession)
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Article
Handgrip Strength Values Depend on Tumor Entity and Predict 180-Day Mortality in Malnourished Cancer Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102173 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Background: Cancer-related malnutrition is a prevalent condition associated with a loss of muscle mass and impaired functional status, leading to immunodeficiency, impaired quality of life and adverse clinical outcomes. Handgrip strength (HGS) is a practical measure to assess muscle strength in individual patients [...] Read more.
Background: Cancer-related malnutrition is a prevalent condition associated with a loss of muscle mass and impaired functional status, leading to immunodeficiency, impaired quality of life and adverse clinical outcomes. Handgrip strength (HGS) is a practical measure to assess muscle strength in individual patients during clinical practice. However, HGS reference values refer to populations of healthy people, and population-specific values, such as those in the population of cancer patients, still need to be defined. Methods: Within a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled nutritional trial focusing on hospitalized cancer patients at risk for malnutrition, we investigated sex-specific HGS values stratified by age and tumor entity. Additionally, we examined the association between HGS and 180-day all-cause mortality. Results: We included data from 628 cancer patients, which were collected from eight hospitals in Switzerland. Depending on the age of patients, HGS varied among female patients from 7 kg to 26 kg and among male patients from 20.5 kg to 44 kg. An incremental decrease in handgrip strength by 10 kg resulted in a 50% increase in 180-day all-cause mortality (odds ratio 1.52 (95%CI 1.19 to 1.94), p = 0.001). Conclusion: Our data provide evidence of the prognostic implications of HGS measurement in cancer patients and validate the prognostic value of handgrip strength in regard to long-term mortality. In addition, our results provide expected HGS values in the population of hospitalized malnourished cancer patients, which may allow better interpretation of values in individual patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Chronic Conditions)
Article
The Relationship between Angiogenic Factors and Energy Metabolism in Preeclampsia
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102172 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Antiangiogenic factors are currently used for the prediction of preeclampsia. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between antiangiogenic factors and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in maternal plasma and placenta. We analyzed 56 pregnant women, 30 healthy and 26 with preeclampsia (including [...] Read more.
Antiangiogenic factors are currently used for the prediction of preeclampsia. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between antiangiogenic factors and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in maternal plasma and placenta. We analyzed 56 pregnant women, 30 healthy and 26 with preeclampsia (including early and late onset). We compared antiangiogenic factors soluble Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sfLt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng)), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in maternal plasma, and lipid metabolism in the placenta from assays of fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid esterification, and triglyceride levels in all groups. Antiangiogenic factors sFlt-1, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio, and sEng showed a positive correlation with triglyceride, free fatty acid, and C-peptide maternal serum levels. However, there was no relationship between angiogenic factors and placental lipid metabolism parameters. Free fatty acids were predictive of elevated sFlt-1 and sEng, while C-peptide was predictive of an elevated sFlt1/PlGF ratio. The findings in this study generate a model to predict elevated antiangiogenic factor values and the relationship between them with different products of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in maternal serum and placenta in preeclampsia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
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Article
Plant-Based Dairy Alternatives: Consumers’ Perceptions, Motivations, and Barriers—Results from a Qualitative Study in Poland, Germany, and France
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102171 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Plant-based dairy substitutes have been gaining popularity in recent years, but consumer perspective on these products is still relatively unexplored. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential of plant-based dairy alternatives, including consumers’ motives and the barriers to embracing this [...] Read more.
Plant-based dairy substitutes have been gaining popularity in recent years, but consumer perspective on these products is still relatively unexplored. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential of plant-based dairy alternatives, including consumers’ motives and the barriers to embracing this food category. A qualitative study (24 focus groups, 154 respondents) was conducted in three countries: Poland, Germany, and France. The study allowed us to describe the reasons for using dairy substitutes (curiosity, health reasons, influence of others), their perceived advantages, and the barriers to their use. The study also showed that the role of dairy differs between the surveyed countries and is related to culinary traditions. As a result, attitudes towards and motives for using dairy substitutes differ in the different countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Profiles of Physical Activity and Physical Performance in Matched Religious Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Women: A Preliminary Observational Study in Taiwan
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2170; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102170 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 646
Abstract
Religious vegetarianism has become more popular with women and increases with age. However, concerns have been raised that vegetarians are less productive than nonvegetarians. Thus, we aimed to compare the characteristics of physical activity and physical performance in properly matched religious vegetarian and [...] Read more.
Religious vegetarianism has become more popular with women and increases with age. However, concerns have been raised that vegetarians are less productive than nonvegetarians. Thus, we aimed to compare the characteristics of physical activity and physical performance in properly matched religious vegetarian and nonvegetarian women aged ≥ 45 years. Participants (n = 160) were recruited via convenience sampling in the community of Hualien, Taiwan, and matched by demographic and cognitive characteristics. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Physical performance was assessed with handgrip strength, five-times-sit-to-stand, gait speed, timed up-and-go, and functional reach tests (FRT). Overall, 90% of religious vegetarians practiced lacto-ovo-vegetarianism. The proportions of those with low physical activity levels and poor physical performance did not significantly differ between religious vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Additionally, there were no significant between-group differences in IPAQ-SF scores and physical performance, except for FRT performance (mean 24.5 cm vs. 19.7 cm, p < 0.001). Exhaustion after work, busyness, and a lack of interest were three main reasons for low physical activity levels, and none of these had significant between-group differences (p = 0.936). Our results show a similar profile of physical activity and physical performance in religious vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sports Nutrition)
Article
Caffeic Acid Alleviates Memory and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Deficits in Aging Rats Induced by D-Galactose
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102169 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life, but it declines with age. D-galactose (D-gal) enhances cellular senescence through oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Caffeic acid (CA) acts as an antioxidant via decreasing brain oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the advantages [...] Read more.
Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life, but it declines with age. D-galactose (D-gal) enhances cellular senescence through oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Caffeic acid (CA) acts as an antioxidant via decreasing brain oxidative stress. This study aims to investigate the advantages of CA in alleviating the loss of memory and neurogenesis production in the hippocampus in aged rats activated by D-gal. Fifty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were unpredictably arranged into six groups. In the D-gal group, rats were administered D-gal (50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. For the CA groups, rats received 20 or 40 mg/kg CA by oral gavage. In the co-treated groups, rats received D-gal (50 mg/kg) and CA (20 or 40 mg/kg) for eight weeks. The results of novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests showed memory deficits. Moreover, a decline of neurogenesis in the hippocampus was detected in rats that received D-gal by detecting rat endothelial cell antigen-1 (RECA-1)/Ki-67, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)/neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), doublecortin (DCX) by means of staining to evaluate blood vessel associated proliferating cells, neuronal cell survival and premature neurons, respectively. By contrast, CA attenuated these effects. Our results postulate that CA attenuated the impairment of memory in D-gal-stimulated aging by up-regulating levels of hippocampal neurogenesis. Full article
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Review
Is There a Correlation between Dietary and Blood Cholesterol? Evidence from Epidemiological Data and Clinical Interventions
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102168 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Dietary cholesterol has been a topic of debate since the 1960s when the first dietary guidelines that limited cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg/day were set. These recommendations were followed for several years, and it was not until the late 1990s [...] Read more.
Dietary cholesterol has been a topic of debate since the 1960s when the first dietary guidelines that limited cholesterol intake to no more than 300 mg/day were set. These recommendations were followed for several years, and it was not until the late 1990s when they were finally challenged by the newer information derived from epidemiological studies and meta-analysis, which confirmed the lack of correlation between dietary and blood cholesterol. Further, dietary interventions in which challenges of cholesterol intake were evaluated in diverse populations not only confirmed these findings but also reported beneficial effects on plasma lipoprotein subfractions and size as well as increases in HDL cholesterol and in the functionality of HDL. In this review, we evaluate the evidence from recent epidemiological analysis and meta-analysis as well as clinical trials to have a better understanding of the lack of correlation between dietary and blood cholesterol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Dietary Cholesterol to Blood Cholesterol)
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Reply
Reply to Aguenaou et al. Comment on “Muzzioli et al. Are Front-of-Pack Labels a Health Policy Tool? Nutrients 2022, 14, 771”
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102167 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 320
Abstract
As a team of scientists who believe that exchanging views is one of the prerequisites of the scientific method, we welcome the comments from Aguenaou H et al. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
Systematic Review
Dietary Characteristics and Influencing Factors on Chinese Immigrants in Canada and the United States: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102166 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 461
Abstract
Background: Chinese immigrants are an integral part of Canadian and American society. Chinese immigrants believe diet to be an important aspect of health, and dietary behaviours in this population have been associated with changes in disease risk factors and disease incidence. This review [...] Read more.
Background: Chinese immigrants are an integral part of Canadian and American society. Chinese immigrants believe diet to be an important aspect of health, and dietary behaviours in this population have been associated with changes in disease risk factors and disease incidence. This review aims to summarize the characteristics of the dietary behaviours of Chinese immigrants and the associated influencing factors to better inform individual, clinical, and policy decisions. Methods: This scoping review was written in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, AgeLine, ERIC, ProQuest, Nursing and Allied Health Database, PsychARTICLES, and Sociology Database were utilized for the literature search. Articles were included if they explored dietary or nutritional intake or its influencing factors for Chinese immigrants to Canada or the United States. Results: A total of 51 papers were included in this review. Among Chinese immigrants in Canada and the United States, the intake of fruits and vegetables, milk and alternatives, and fiber were inadequate against national recommendations. Chinese immigrants showed increased total consumption of food across all food groups and adoption of Western food items. Total caloric intake, meat and alternatives intake, and carbohydrate intake increased with acculturation. Individual factors (demographics, individual preferences, and nutritional awareness), familial factors (familial preferences and values, having young children in the family, and household food environment), and community factors (accessibility and cultural conceptualizations of health and eating) influenced dietary behaviours of Chinese immigrants. Discussion and Conclusion: Efforts should be undertaken to increase fruit, vegetable, and fibre consumption in this population. As dietary acculturation is inevitable, efforts must also be undertaken to ensure that healthy Western foods are adopted. It is important for healthcare providers to remain culturally sensitive when providing dietary recommendations. This can be achieved through encouragement of healthy ethnocultural foods and acknowledgement and incorporation of traditional health beliefs and values into Western evidence-based principles where possible. Full article
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Comment
Comment on Muzzioli et al. Are Front-of-Pack Labels a Health Policy Tool? Nutrients 2022, 14, 771
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102165 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
As scientists working and publishing in the field of front-of-pack nutrition labelling (FOPNL) for many years, we have read with interest and concern the narrative review regarding their effectiveness by Muzzioli et al. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Policies and Education for Health Promotion)
Article
Phytochemical Combination (p-Synephrine, p-Octopamine Hydrochloride, and Hispidulin) for Improving Obesity in Obese Mice Induced by High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102164 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 497
Abstract
Obesity treatment efficiency can be increased by targeting both central and peripheral pathways. In a previous study, we identified two natural compounds (hispidulin and p-synephrine) that affect adipocyte differentiation. We tested whether obesity treatment efficiency may be improved by adding an appetite-controlling [...] Read more.
Obesity treatment efficiency can be increased by targeting both central and peripheral pathways. In a previous study, we identified two natural compounds (hispidulin and p-synephrine) that affect adipocyte differentiation. We tested whether obesity treatment efficiency may be improved by adding an appetite-controlling agent to the treatment in the present study. Alkaloids, such as p-octopamine, are adrenergic agonists and are thus used as dietary supplements to achieve weight loss. Here, we assessed anti-obesity effects of a mixture of p-synephrine, p-octopamine HCl, and hispidulin (SOH) on murine preadipocyte cells and on mice receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). SOH showed stronger inhibition of the formation of red-stained lipid droplets than co-treatment with hispidulin and p-synephrine. Moreover, SOH reduced the expression of adipogenic marker proteins, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. In the HFD-induced obesity model, body weight and dietary intake were lower in mice treated with SOH than in the controls. Additionally, liver weight and the levels of alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol were lower in SOH-treated mice than in the controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of SOH may be a potential alternative strategy to counteract obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Perspectives of Plant Natural Products for Mitigation of Obesity)
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Article
The Prebiotic Effect of Australian Seaweeds on Commensal Bacteria and Short Chain Fatty Acid Production in a Simulated Gut Model
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102163 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Diet is known to affect the composition and metabolite production of the human gut microbial community, which in turn is linked with the health and immune status of the host. Whole seaweeds (WH) and their extracts contain prebiotic components such as polysaccharides (PS) [...] Read more.
Diet is known to affect the composition and metabolite production of the human gut microbial community, which in turn is linked with the health and immune status of the host. Whole seaweeds (WH) and their extracts contain prebiotic components such as polysaccharides (PS) and polyphenols (PP). In this study, the Australian seaweeds, Phyllospora comosa, Ecklonia radiataUlva ohnoi, and their PS and PP extracts were assessed for potential prebiotic activities using an in vitro gut model that included fresh human faecal inoculum. 16S rRNA sequencing post gut simulation treatment revealed that the abundance of several taxa of commensal bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes linked with short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, and gut and immune function, including the lactic acid producing order Lactobacillales and the chief butyrate-producing genera Faecalibacteria, Roseburia, Blautia, and Butyricicoccus were significantly enhanced by the inclusion of WH, PS and PP extracts. After 24 h fermentation, the abundance of total Firmicutes ranged from 57.35–81.55% in the WH, PS and PP samples, which was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.01) than the inulin (INU) polysaccharide control (32.50%) and the epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) polyphenol control (67.13%); with the exception of P. comosa PP (57.35%), which was significantly greater than INU only. However, all WH, PS and PP samples also increased the abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria; while the abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was decreased by WH and PS samples. After 24 h incubation, the total and individual SCFAs present, including butyric, acetic and propionic acids produced by bacteria fermented with E. radiata and U. ohnoi, were significantly greater than the SCFAs identified in the INU and EGCG controls. Most notably, total SCFAs in the E. radiata PS and U. ohnoi WH samples were 227.53 and 208.68 µmol/mL, respectively, compared to only 71.05 µmol/mL in INU and 7.76 µmol/mL in the EGCG samples. This study demonstrates that whole seaweeds and their extracts have potential as functional food ingredients to support normal gut and immune function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Aspects of Immunometabolism in Health and Disease)
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Review
Celiac Disease and Thrombotic Events: Systematic Review of Published Cases
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102162 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 822
Abstract
Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease (CD) should be considered, even in patients without typical intestinal symptoms. The aim of our study is to examine the literature regarding the occurrence of thrombotic events in CD, and to synthesize the data from case reports and [...] Read more.
Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease (CD) should be considered, even in patients without typical intestinal symptoms. The aim of our study is to examine the literature regarding the occurrence of thrombotic events in CD, and to synthesize the data from case reports and case series. A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching the Pub-Med/MEDLINE database, from the date of database inception to January 2022, to identify published cases and case series on this topic, in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A total of 55 cases were included in the study. The majority of patients were previously healthy individuals, with no comorbidities. In less than one-third of the cases (30.91%), the diagnosis of CD was established before the onset of thrombosis, while in the remaining cases (34.54%), thrombosis preceded the diagnosis or was diagnosed concomitantly with CD. The most common sites for thrombosis occurrence were hepatic veins (30.91%), while thrombosis of cerebral blood vessels, deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities, and pulmonary thromboembolism were less frequent. Thrombosis was most commonly isolated to one site only (78.18%). In 69.09% of cases (n = 38), some form of anticoagulation, along with a gluten-free diet, was initiated. Full article
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Review
Anthocyanins in Chronic Diseases: The Power of Purple
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102161 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Anthocyanins are mainly purple-coloured phenolic compounds of plant origin that as secondary metabolites are important in plant survival. Understanding their health benefits in humans requires sourcing these unstable compounds in sufficient quantities at a reasonable cost, which has led to improved methods of [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins are mainly purple-coloured phenolic compounds of plant origin that as secondary metabolites are important in plant survival. Understanding their health benefits in humans requires sourcing these unstable compounds in sufficient quantities at a reasonable cost, which has led to improved methods of extraction. Dark-coloured fruits, cereals and vegetables are current sources of these compounds. The range of potential sustainable sources is much larger and includes non-commercialised native plants from around the world and agri-waste containing anthocyanins. In the last 5 years, there have been significant advances in developing the therapeutic potential of anthocyanins in chronic human diseases. Anthocyanins exert their beneficial effects through improvements in gut microbiota, oxidative stress and inflammation, and modulation of neuropeptides such as insulin-like growth factor-1. Their health benefits in humans include reduced cognitive decline; protection of organs such as the liver, as well as the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys; improvements in bone health and obesity; and regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. This review summarises some of the sources of anthocyanins and their mechanisms and benefits in the treatment of chronic human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Article
Investigation of Maternal Diet and FADS1 Polymorphism Associated with Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Compositions in Human Milk
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102160 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Increasing the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in human milk is an important strategy for infant growth and development. We investigated the associations of LCPUFA compositions in human milk with maternal diet (especially fish and shellfish intake), with fatty acid Δ5 [...] Read more.
Increasing the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in human milk is an important strategy for infant growth and development. We investigated the associations of LCPUFA compositions in human milk with maternal diet (especially fish and shellfish intake), with fatty acid Δ5 desaturase gene (FADS1) polymorphisms, and with gene-diet interactions. The present study was performed as part of an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The participants were 304 lactating females, who provided human milk 6–7 months after delivery. Fatty acids in human milk were analyzed by gas chromatography, and dietary surveys were conducted using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. We also analyzed a single nucleotide polymorphism of FADS1 (rs174547, T/C). There was a significant difference in arachidonic acid (ARA) composition in human milk among the genotype groups, and the values were decreasing in the order of TT > TC > CC. The concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were also different between TT and CC genotype, indicating a tendency for decreasing values in the same order. The composition of ARA showed significant gene–dietary interactions in multiple regression analysis, and the positive correlation between fish and shellfish intake and ARA composition in human milk was significant only in the CC genotype. Moreover, the factor most strongly associated with EPA and DHA composition in human milk was fish and shellfish intake. Therefore, it was suggested that increasing fish and shellfish intake in mothers may increase EPA and DHA composition in human milk, while increasing fish and shellfish intake in CC genotype mothers may lead to increased ARA composition in human milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Lipids)
Article
Minimal Effects of Medium-Chain Triglyceride Supplementation on the Intestinal Microbiome Composition of Premature Infants: A Single-Center Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102159 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Compared to term infants, the microbiota of preterm infants is less diverse and often enriched for potential pathogens (e.g., members of the family Enterobacteriaceae). Additionally, antibiotics are frequently given to preterm infants, further destabilizing the microbiota and increasing the risk of fungal infections. [...] Read more.
Compared to term infants, the microbiota of preterm infants is less diverse and often enriched for potential pathogens (e.g., members of the family Enterobacteriaceae). Additionally, antibiotics are frequently given to preterm infants, further destabilizing the microbiota and increasing the risk of fungal infections. In a previous communication, our group showed that supplementation of the premature infant diet with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil reduced the fungal burden of Candida spp. in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether MCT supplementation impacts the bacterial component of the microbiome. Pre-term infants (n = 17) receiving enteral feedings of either infant formula (n = 12) or human milk (n = 5) were randomized to MCT supplementation (n = 9) or no supplementation (n = 8). Fecal samples were taken at randomization and prior to MCT supplementation (Week 0), on days 5–7 (Week 1) and day 21 (Week 3). After DNA extraction from samples, the QIIME2 pipeline was utilized to measure community diversity and composition (genera and phyla). Our findings show that MCT supplementation did not significantly alter microbiota diversity or composition in the gastrointestinal tract. Importantly, there were no significant changes in the family Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting that MCT supplementation did not enrich for potential pathogens. MCT holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for reducing fungal colonization without significant impact on the bacterial composition of the host gastrointestinal tract. Full article
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Article
Effects of Resistant Dextrin from Potato Starch on the Growth Dynamics of Selected Co-Cultured Strains of Gastrointestinal Bacteria and the Activity of Fecal Enzymes
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2158; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102158 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 621
Abstract
Preparations of resistant dextrins have become an interesting topic of research due to their properties, which bear resemblance those of prebiotics, e.g., the improvement of metabolic parameters, increased efficiency of the immune system and induction of vitamin production. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Preparations of resistant dextrins have become an interesting topic of research due to their properties, which bear resemblance those of prebiotics, e.g., the improvement of metabolic parameters, increased efficiency of the immune system and induction of vitamin production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the resistant dextrin produced from potato starch on the growth dynamics of typical gastrointestinal microbiota and the activity of fecal enzymes in order to assess a possible exhibition of prebiotic properties. In the study, in vitro cultivation of co-cultures of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, E. coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. was conducted on media enriched with the resistant dextrin. The CFU/mL for each strain was measured in time periods of 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168 h. Furthermore, the activities of α-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase were determined using spectrophotometric methods at a wavelength of 400 nm. The results show that the resistant dextrin can be utilized as a source of carbon for the growth of intestinal bacteria. Moreover, the results revealed that, after 168 h of cultivation, it enhances the viability of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. and decreases the growth of other intestinal strains (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Bacteroides), which is demonstrated by a high Prebiotic Index (p < 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant change in the pH of the cultures; however, the pace of the pH decrease during the cultivation was slower in the case of culture with resistant dextrin. Furthermore, it was revealed that usage of the resistant dextrin as a medium additive noticeably lowered the activities of β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase compared to the control (p < 0.05), whereas the activities of the other fecal enzymes were affected to a lesser degree. The resistant dextrins derived from potato starch are a suitable prebiotic candidate as they promote the growth of beneficial strains of gut bacteria and improve health markers, such as the activity of fecal enzymes. Nevertheless, additional in vivo research is necessary to further assess the suspected health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
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Article
Vitamin D Status and Gestational Diabetes in Russian Pregnant Women in the Period between 2012 and 2021: A Nested Case–Control Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102157 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Several meta-analyses found an association between low maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, some of them reported significant heterogeneity. We examined the association of serum 25(OH)D concentration measured in the first and in the second halves of [...] Read more.
Several meta-analyses found an association between low maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, some of them reported significant heterogeneity. We examined the association of serum 25(OH)D concentration measured in the first and in the second halves of pregnancy with the development of GDM in Russian women surveyed in the periods of 2012–2014 and 2018–2021. We conducted a case–control study (including 318 pregnant women) nested on two previous studies. In 2012–2014, a total of 214 women (83 GDM and 131 controls) were enrolled before 15 weeks of gestation and maternal serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured twice: at 8th–14th week of gestation and simultaneously with two-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24th–32nd week of gestation. In the period of 2018–2021, 104 women (56 GDM and 48 controls) were included after OGTT and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured at 24th–32nd week of gestation. Median 25(OH)D levels were 20.0 [15.1–25.7] vs. 20.5 [14.5–27.5] ng/mL (p = 0.565) in GDM and control group in the first half of pregnancy and 25.3 [19.8–33.0] vs. 26.7 [20.8–36.8] ng/mL (p = 0.471) in the second half of pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence rates for vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/mL) were 49.4% and 45.8% (p = 0.608) in the first half of pregnancy and 26.2% vs. 22.1% (p = 0.516) in the second half of pregnancy in women who developed GDM and in women without GDM, respectively. The frequency of vitamin D supplements intake during pregnancy increased in 2018–2021 compared to 2012–2014 (p = 0.001). However, the third trimester 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25.5 vs. 23.1, p = 0.744) did not differ in women examined in the periods of 2012–2014 and 2018–2021. To conclude, there was no association between gestational diabetes risk and maternal 25(OH)D measured both in the first and in the second halves of pregnancy. The increased prevalence of vitamin D supplements intake during pregnancy by 2018–2021 did not lead to higher levels of 25(OH)D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
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Article
Trehalose Suppresses Lysosomal Anomalies in Supporting Cells of Oocytes and Maintains Female Fertility
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102156 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Supporting cells of oocytes, i.e., cumulus cells, control oocyte quality, which determines fertilization success. Therefore, the transformation of mature and immature cumulus cells (MCCs and ICCs, respectively) into dysmature cumulus cells (DCCs) with dead characteristics deteriorates oocyte quality. However, the molecular basis for [...] Read more.
Supporting cells of oocytes, i.e., cumulus cells, control oocyte quality, which determines fertilization success. Therefore, the transformation of mature and immature cumulus cells (MCCs and ICCs, respectively) into dysmature cumulus cells (DCCs) with dead characteristics deteriorates oocyte quality. However, the molecular basis for this transformation remains unclear. Here, we explored the link between autophagic decline and cumulus transformation using cumulus cells from patients with infertility, female mice, and human granulosa cell-derived KGN cell lines. When human cumulus cells were labeled with LysoTracker probes, fluorescence corresponding to lysosomes was enhanced in DCCs compared to that in MCCs and ICCs. Similarly, treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine elevated LysoTracker fluorescence in both mouse cumulus cells and KGN cells, subsequently suppressing ovulation in female mice. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the proliferation of abnormal lysosomes in chloroquine-treated KGN cells. Conversely, the addition of an autophagy inducer, trehalose, suppressed chloroquine-driven problematic lysosomal anomalies and ameliorated ovulation problems. Our results suggest that autophagy maintains the healthy state of the supporting cells of human oocytes by suppressing the formation of lysosomes. Thus, our results provide insights into the therapeutic effects of trehalose on female fertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Nutrition on Female Reproductive Disorders)
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Article
Dietary Intake, Nutritional Status and Sensory Profile in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102155 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may consume a restricted diet, whether due to sensory sensitivities or an adherence to a gluten and casein free (GCF) diet. Our objective was to analyze dietary intake, nutritional status, and sensory profile in children with and [...] Read more.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may consume a restricted diet, whether due to sensory sensitivities or an adherence to a gluten and casein free (GCF) diet. Our objective was to analyze dietary intake, nutritional status, and sensory profile in children with and without ASD. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 65 children (3–12 years, ASD = 35, typical development (TD) = 30). Short Sensory Profile and food frequency questionnaires were applied. All participants were categorized into normal weight and excess weight, typical sensory performance (TP), and probable + definite difference (PD + DD); and ASD group into GCF dieters (ASD-diet) and non-dieters (ASD-no diet). Children with ASD had a higher intake (gr or ml/d) of vegetable drinks (p = 0.001), gluten-free cereals (p = 0.003), and a lower intake of fish (p < 0.001) than TD ones. The ASD group showed a lower score in total sensory profile score (p < 0.001) than TD group. In the ASD group, those who had PD + DD in their sensory profile consumed fewer dairies (p = 0.019), and more cereals (p = 0.036) and protein foods (p = 0.034) than those with TP. These findings confirm the need to consider the neurodevelopment, sensory profile, and type of diet to improve the ASD child’s nutrition. Further long-term research is needed to explore their impact on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Review
Diet Modification before or during Pregnancy on Maternal and Foetal Outcomes in Rodent Models of Maternal Obesity
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102154 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The obesity epidemic has serious implications for women of reproductive age; its rising incidence is associated not just with health implications for the mother but also has transgenerational ramifications for the offspring. Increased incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and kidney disease are [...] Read more.
The obesity epidemic has serious implications for women of reproductive age; its rising incidence is associated not just with health implications for the mother but also has transgenerational ramifications for the offspring. Increased incidence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and kidney disease are seen in both the mothers and the offspring. Animal models, such as rodent studies, are fundamental to studying maternal obesity and its impact on maternal and offspring health, as human studies lack rigorous controlled experimental design. Furthermore, the short and prolific reproductive potential of rodents enables examination across multiple generations and facilitates the exploration of interventional strategies to mitigate the impact of maternal obesity, both before and during pregnancy. Given that obesity is a major public health concern, it is important to obtain a greater understanding of its pathophysiology and interaction with reproductive health, placental physiology, and foetal development. This narrative review focuses on the known effects of maternal obesity on the mother and the offspring, and the benefits of interventional strategies, including dietary intervention, before or during pregnancy on maternal and foetal outcomes. It further examines the contribution of rodent models of maternal obesity to elucidating pathophysiological pathways of disease development, as well as methods to reduce the impact of obesity on the mothers and the developing foetus. The translation of these findings into the human experience will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Disease Development: Present and Future)
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Article
Extra Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Gut Permeability and Metabolic Endotoxemia in Diabetic Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2153; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102153 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Background: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycemia, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that EVOO improves post-prandial glycemia by reducing gut permeability-derived low-grade endotoxemia. Methods: Serum levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), zonulin, a marker of [...] Read more.
Background: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycemia, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that EVOO improves post-prandial glycemia by reducing gut permeability-derived low-grade endotoxemia. Methods: Serum levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) were measured in 20 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 20 healthy subjects (HS) matched for sex and age. The same variables were measured in IFG patients (n = 20) and HS (n = 20) before and after a Mediterranean diet with 10 g EVOO added or not (n = 20) or in IFG patients (n = 20) before and after intake of 40 g chocolate with EVOO added or not. Results: Compared to HS, IFG had higher levels of LPS and zonulin. In HS, meal intake was associated with a significant increase of blood glucose, insulin, and GLP1 with no changes of blood LPS and zonulin. Two hours after a meal intake containing EVOO, IFG patients showed a less significant increase of blood glucose, a more marked increase of blood insulin and GLP1 and a significant reduction of LPS and zonulin compared to IFG patients not given EVOO. Correlation analysis showed that LPS directly correlated with blood glucose and zonulin and inversely with blood insulin. Similar findings were detected in IFG patients given a chocolate added or without EVOO. Conclusion: Addition of EVOO to a Mediterranean diet or chocolate improves gut permeability and low-grade endotoxemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Support for Chronic Disease)
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Article
Cannabidiol and Cannabidiol Metabolites: Pharmacokinetics, Interaction with Food, and Influence on Liver Function
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2152; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102152 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 775
Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) is widely available and marketed as having therapeutic properties. Over-the-counter CBD is unregulated, many of the therapeutic claims lack scientific support, and controversy exists as to the safety of CBD-liver interaction. The study aims were to compare the pharmacokinetics of commercial [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is widely available and marketed as having therapeutic properties. Over-the-counter CBD is unregulated, many of the therapeutic claims lack scientific support, and controversy exists as to the safety of CBD-liver interaction. The study aims were to compare the pharmacokinetics of commercial CBD and CBD metabolites following the ingestion of five different CBD formulations, determine the influence of CBD on food induced thermogenesis, determine the influence of food on CBD pharmacokinetics, and determine the influence of CBD on markers of liver function. Fourteen males (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) were studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover design. On five occasions, different CBD formulations were ingested (one per visit). On two additional occasions, CBD or placebo was ingested following a meal. CBD servings were standardized to 30 mg. Considerable pharmacokinetic variability existed between formulations; this pharmacokinetic variability transferred to several of the metabolites. CBD did not influence food induced thermogenesis but did favorably modify early insulin and triglyceride responses. Food appreciably altered the pharmacokinetics of CBD. Finally, CBD did not evoke physiologically relevant changes in markers of liver function. Collectively, these data suggest that consumers should be aware of the appreciable pharmacokinetic differences between commercial CBD formulations, CBD is unlikely to influence the caloric cost of eating but may prove to be of some benefit to initial metabolic responses, consuming CBD with food alters the dynamics of CBD metabolism and increases systemic availability, and low-dose CBD probably does not represent a risk to normal liver function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Longitudinal Association of Dietary Energy Density with Abdominal Obesity among Chinese Adults from CHNS 1993–2018
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2151; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102151 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
Few studies have explored the longitudinal association between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity in adults in China. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity in Chinese residents aged 18–64. [...] Read more.
Few studies have explored the longitudinal association between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity in adults in China. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity in Chinese residents aged 18–64. Using data from the CHNS from 1993 to 2018, 25,817 adult residents aged 18 to 64 were selected for the study. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and home-weighed seasonings were used to assess food intake. A multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity. The results showed that compared with the lowest dietary energy density group, females had an increased risk of abdominal obesity (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.29), and females’ waist circumference increased significantly by 0.24 cm (95% CI: 0.39–1.09) in the highest dietary energy density group. No association between dietary energy density and waist circumference and abdominal obesity was observed in males. This study shows that higher dietary energy density is significantly associated with females’ waist circumference and abdominal obesity. Further research on high dietary energy density and abdominal obesity will provide scientific basis for the effective control of abdominal obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Surveillance and Nutritional Cohort Study in China)
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Review
Effect of Paternal Diet on Spermatogenesis and Offspring Health: Focus on Epigenetics and Interventions with Food Bioactive Compounds
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102150 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Infertility is a growing public health problem. Consumption of antioxidant bioactive food compounds (BFCs) that include micronutrients and non-nutrients has been highlighted as a potential strategy to protect against oxidative and inflammatory damage in the male reproductive system induced by obesity, alcohol, and [...] Read more.
Infertility is a growing public health problem. Consumption of antioxidant bioactive food compounds (BFCs) that include micronutrients and non-nutrients has been highlighted as a potential strategy to protect against oxidative and inflammatory damage in the male reproductive system induced by obesity, alcohol, and toxicants and, thus, improve spermatogenesis and the fertility parameters. Paternal consumption of such dietary compounds could not only benefit the fathers but their offspring as well. Studies in the new field of paternal origins of health and disease show that paternal malnutrition can alter sperm epigenome, and this can alter fetal development and program an increased risk of metabolic diseases and breast cancer in adulthood. BFCs, such as ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, polyunsaturated fatty acids, trace elements, carnitines, N-acetylcysteine, and coenzyme Q10, have been shown to improve male gametogenesis, modulate epigenetics of germ cells, and the epigenetic signature of the offspring, restoring offspring metabolic health induced by stressors during early life. This indicates that, from a father’s perspective, preconception is a valuable window of opportunity to start potential nutritional interventions with these BFCs to maximize sperm epigenetic integrity and promote adequate fetal growth and development, thus preventing chronic disease in adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Fathers and Offspring Health: Epigenetic Insights)
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Article
Nutritional Intake and Training Load of Professional Female Football Players during a Mid-Season Microcycle
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14102149 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 738
Abstract
Football (soccer) is a high-intensity intermittent sport with large energy demands. In a repeated-measures design, we analysed the nutritional intake and training load of fourteen female football players (22.50 ± 4.38 y; 57.23 ± 8.61 kg; 164 ± 6.00 cm; 18.33 ± 2.48% [...] Read more.
Football (soccer) is a high-intensity intermittent sport with large energy demands. In a repeated-measures design, we analysed the nutritional intake and training load of fourteen female football players (22.50 ± 4.38 y; 57.23 ± 8.61 kg; 164 ± 6.00 cm; 18.33 ± 2.48% of fat mass and 23.71 ± 2.51 kg of muscle mass) competing in the highest female Football Portuguese League across a typical mid-season microcycle. The microcycle had one match day (MD), one recovery session (two days after the MD, MD+2), three training sessions (MD-3, MD-2, MD-1) and two rest days (MD+1). Energy intake and CHO (g.kg.BW−1) intake were lower on the days before the competition (MD+2, MD-3, MD-2 and MD-1 vs. MD; p < 0.05; ES: 0.60–1.30). Total distance, distance covered at high-speed running (HSRD) and the high metabolic distance load (HMLD) were lower on MD+2, MD-3 and MD-1 compared with MD (p < 0.05; ES: <0.2–5.70). The internal training load was lower in all training sessions before the competition (MD+2, MD-3, MD-2 and MD-1 vs. MD; p ≤ 0.01; ES: 1.28–5.47). Despite the small sample size and a single assessment in time, the results suggest that caloric and CHO intake were below the recommendations and were not structured based on the physical requirements for training sessions or match days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Exercise and Sports Nutrition)
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