Background: Non-alcoholic liver steatosis (NAS) results from an imbalance between hepatic lipid storage, disposal, and partitioning. A multifactorial diet high in fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyphenols, and vitamins D, E, and C reduces NAS in
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Background: Non-alcoholic liver steatosis (NAS) results from an imbalance between hepatic lipid storage, disposal, and partitioning. A multifactorial diet high in fiber, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), polyphenols, and vitamins D, E, and C reduces NAS in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) by 40% compared to a MUFA-rich diet. We evaluated whether dietary effects on NAS are mediated by changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) activity, and/or β-oxidation. Methods: According to a randomized parallel group study design, 37 individuals with T2D completed an 8-week isocaloric intervention with a MUFA diet (n
= 20) or multifactorial diet (n
= 17). Before and after the intervention, liver fat content was evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, serum triglyceride fatty acid concentrations measured by gas chromatography, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate by enzymatic method, and DNL and SCD-1 activity assessed by calculating the palmitic acid/linoleic acid (C16:0/C18:2 n6) and palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid (C16:1/C16:0) ratios, respectively. Results: Compared to baseline, mean ± SD DNL significantly decreased after the multifactorial diet (2.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5, p
= 0.0001) but did not change after the MUFA diet (1.9 ± 1.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9, p
= 0.949), with a significant difference between the two interventions (p
= 0.004). The mean SCD-1 activity also decreased after the multifactorial diet (0.13 ± 0.05 vs. 0.10 ± 0.03; p
= 0.001), but with no significant difference between interventions (p
= 0.205). Fasting plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations did not change significantly after the MUFA or multifactorial diet. Changes in the DNL index significantly and positively correlated with changes in liver fat (r = 0.426; p
= 0.009). Conclusions: A diet rich in multiple beneficial dietary components (fiber, polyphenols, MUFAs, PUFAs, and other antioxidants) compared to a diet rich only in MUFAs further reduces liver fat accumulation through the inhibition of DNL. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT03380416.