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Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 11 (June-1 2022) – 182 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We examined whether the often-reported protective association of alcohol with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk could arise from confounding factors. Results showed lower CVD risk among light and moderate alcohol drinkers, and relative to very light drinkers, for all CVD risk scores, independent of demographics, body size, and health-related behaviors. Alcohol–CVD risk associations were robust to further adjustment for several groups of potential explanatory factors. Although this observational study does not address causation, results show that middle-aged men who consume alcohol in moderation have lower CVD risk and better cardiometabolic health than men who consume little or no alcohol, independent of a variety of health, behavioral, psychosocial, and earlier life factors. View this paper
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Article
Suppression of Anti-Inflammatory Mediators in Metabolic Disease May Be Driven by Overwhelming Pro-Inflammatory Drivers
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112360 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Obesity is a multifactorial disease and is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and co-morbidities. Dysregulated expansion of the adipose tissue during obesity induces local tissue hypoxia, altered secretory profile of adipokines, cytokines and chemokines, altered profile of local tissue [...] Read more.
Obesity is a multifactorial disease and is associated with an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome and co-morbidities. Dysregulated expansion of the adipose tissue during obesity induces local tissue hypoxia, altered secretory profile of adipokines, cytokines and chemokines, altered profile of local tissue inflammatory cells leading to the development of low-grade chronic inflammation. Low grade chronic inflammation is considered to be the underlying mechanism that increases the risk of developing obesity associated comorbidities. The glucocorticoid induced protein annexin A1 and its N-terminal peptides are anti-inflammatory mediators involved in resolving inflammation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of annexin A1 in obesity and associated inflammation. To achieve this aim, the current study analysed data from two feasibility studies in clinical populations: (1) bariatric surgery patients (Pre- and 3 months post-surgery) and (2) Lipodystrophy patients. Plasma annexin A1 levels were increased at 3-months post-surgery compared to pre-surgery (1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, n = 19 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 ng/mL, n = 9, p = 0.009) and positively correlated with adiponectin (p = 0.009, r = 0.468, n = 25). Plasma annexin A1 levels were decreased in patients with lipodystrophy compared to BMI matched controls (0.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, n = 9 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1 ng/mL, n = 30, p = 0.008), whereas CRP levels were significantly elevated (3.3 ± 1.0 µg/mL, n = 9 vs. 1.4 ± 0.3 µg/mL, n = 31, p = 0.0074). The roles of annexin A1 were explored using an in vitro cell based model (SGBS cells) mimicking the inflammatory status that is observed in obesity. Acute treatment with the annexin A1 N-terminal peptide, AC2-26 differentially regulated gene expression (including PPARA (2.8 ± 0.7-fold, p = 0.0303, n = 3), ADIPOQ (2.0 ± 0.3-fold, p = 0.0073, n = 3), LEP (0.6 ± 0.2-fold, p = 0.0400, n = 3), NAMPT (0.4 ± 0.1-fold, p = 0.0039, n = 3) and RETN (0.1 ± 0.03-fold, p < 0.0001, n = 3) in mature obesogenic adipocytes indicating that annexin A1 may play a protective role in obesity and inflammation. However, this effect may be overshadowed by the continued increase in systemic inflammation associated with rapid tissue expansion in obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Metabolic Disorders)
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Article
A New Evidence-Based Diet Score to Capture Associations of Food Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2359; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112359 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Previously, the attempt to compile German dietary guidelines into a diet score was predominantly not successful with regards to preventing chronic diseases in the EPIC-Potsdam study. Current guidelines were supplemented by the latest evidence from systematic reviews and expert papers published between 2010 [...] Read more.
Previously, the attempt to compile German dietary guidelines into a diet score was predominantly not successful with regards to preventing chronic diseases in the EPIC-Potsdam study. Current guidelines were supplemented by the latest evidence from systematic reviews and expert papers published between 2010 and 2020 on the prevention potential of food groups on chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. A diet score was developed by scoring the food groups according to a recommended low, moderate or high intake. The relative validity and reliability of the diet score, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, was investigated. The consideration of current evidence resulted in 10 key food groups being preventive of the chronic diseases of interest. They served as components in the diet score and were scored from 0 to 1 point, depending on their recommended intake, resulting in a maximum of 10 points. Both the reliability (r = 0.53) and relative validity (r = 0.43) were deemed sufficient to consider the diet score as a stable construct in future investigations. This new diet score can be a promising tool to investigate dietary intake in etiological research by concentrating on 10 key dietary determinants with evidence-based prevention potential for chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Assessment for Weight Management and Health Maintaining)
Article
11β-HSD1 Inhibitor Alleviates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Activating the AMPK/SIRT1 Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112358 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 599
Abstract
We investigated the effect of an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (H8) on hepatic steatosis and its mechanism of action. Although H8, a curcumin derivative, has been shown to alleviate insulin resistance, its effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. Rats were fed a [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (H8) on hepatic steatosis and its mechanism of action. Although H8, a curcumin derivative, has been shown to alleviate insulin resistance, its effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unknown. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce NAFLD, and, then, treated with H8 (3 or 6 mg/kg/day) or curcumin (6 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks, to evaluate the effects of H8 on NAFLD. H8 significantly alleviated HFD+STZ-induced lipid accumulation, fibrosis, and inflammation as well as improved liver function. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 overexpression was established by transfecting animals and HepG2 cells with lentivirus, carrying the 11β-HSD1 gene, to confirm that H8 improved NAFLD, by reducing 11β-HSD1. An AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor (Compound C, 10 μM for 2 h) was used to confirm that H8 increased AMPK, by inhibiting 11β-HSD1, thereby restoring lipid metabolic homeostasis. A silencing-related enzyme 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor (EX572, 10 μM for 4 h) and a SIRT1 activator (SRT1720, 1 μM for 4 h) were used to confirm that H8 exerted anti-inflammatory effects, by elevating SIRT1 expression. Our findings demonstrate that H8 alleviates hepatic steatosis, by inhibiting 11β-HSD1, which activates the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway. Full article
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Article
Effects of Five Amino Acids (Serine, Alanine, Glutamate, Aspartate, and Tyrosine) on Mental Health in Healthy Office Workers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Exploratory Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2357; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112357 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1242
Abstract
Background: The importance of maintaining good mental health with overall well-being has recently drawn attention from various spheres of academics and the working population. Amino acid intake has been reported to reduce depression symptoms and other mental health problems. However, the effectiveness of [...] Read more.
Background: The importance of maintaining good mental health with overall well-being has recently drawn attention from various spheres of academics and the working population. Amino acid intake has been reported to reduce depression symptoms and other mental health problems. However, the effectiveness of amino acid intake (i.e., single or combined) remains unknown. In this study, we assessed a combination of five amino acids (serine, alanine, glutamate, aspartate, and tyrosine; SAGAT) reported to regulate mental health. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory trial was conducted. Participants, aged between 20 and 65 years with fatigue sensation, were randomized to receive either SAGAT or the placebo and ingested them for four weeks. A transient mental work was loaded at day 0 and after four weeks of intervention. As the primary outcomes, the fatigue sensation was assessed. The mood status, cognitive function, work efficiency, and blood marker were also measured as secondary outcomes. Results: The number of participants analyzed for the efficacy evaluation were 20 in SAGAT and 22 in the placebo. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes. However, as the secondary outcomes, the SAGAT group showed a significant improvement in motivation and cognitive function in the recovery period after mental work loaded in a four-week intervention compared to the placebo. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that SAGAT contributes to maintaining proper motivation and cognitive function. Clinical Trial Registration: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (ID: UMIN 000041221). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
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Article
Revisional Surgery of One Anastomosis Gastric Bypass for Severe Protein–Energy Malnutrition
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2356; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112356 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Background: One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is safe and effective. Its strong malabsorptive component might cause severe protein–energy malnutrition (PEM), necessitating revisional surgery. We aimed to evaluate the safety and outcomes of OAGB revision for severe PEM. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective [...] Read more.
Background: One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is safe and effective. Its strong malabsorptive component might cause severe protein–energy malnutrition (PEM), necessitating revisional surgery. We aimed to evaluate the safety and outcomes of OAGB revision for severe PEM. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective analysis of OAGB patients undergoing revision for severe PEM (2015–2021). Perioperative data and outcomes were retrieved. Results: Ten patients underwent revision for severe PEM. Our center’s incidence is 0.63% (9/1425 OAGB). All patients were symptomatic. Median (interquartile range) EWL and lowest albumin were 103.7% (range 57.6, 114) and 24 g/dL (range 19, 27), respectively, and 8/10 patients had significant micronutrient deficiencies. Before revision, nutritional optimization was undertaken. Median OAGB to revision interval was 18.4 months (range 15.7, 27.8). Median BPL length was 200 cm (range 177, 227). Reversal (n = 5), BPL shortening (n = 3), and conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (n = 2) were performed. One patient had anastomotic leak after BPL shortening. No death occurred. Median BMI and albumin increased from 22.4 kg/m2 (range 20.6, 30.3) and 35.5 g/dL (range 29.2, 41), respectively, at revision to 27.5 (range 22.2, 32.4) kg/m2 and 39.5 g/dL (range 37.2, 41.7), respectively, at follow-up (median 25.4 months, range 3.1, 45). Complete resolution occurs after conversion to RYGB or reversal to normal anatomy, but not after BPL shortening. Conclusions: Revisional surgery of OAGB for severe PEM is feasible and safe after nutritional optimization. Our results suggest that the type of revision may be an important factor for PEM resolution. Comparative studies are needed to define the role of each revisional option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Nutrition for Bariatric Surgery)
Article
The Association of Vitamin D and Its Pathway Genes’ Polymorphisms with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112355 - 06 Jun 2022
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Objective: We aimed to explore the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the genes of the vitamin D (VitD) metabolic pathway and its interaction with VitD level during pregnancy on the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Methods: The study was [...] Read more.
Objective: We aimed to explore the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the genes of the vitamin D (VitD) metabolic pathway and its interaction with VitD level during pregnancy on the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). Methods: The study was conducted in the Zhoushan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, China, from August 2011 to May 2018. The SNPs in VitD metabolic pathway-related genes were genotyped. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels was measured at first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) trimesters. The information of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the diagnosis of HDP were extracted from the electronic medical record system. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models and crossover analysis were applied. Results: The prospective cohort study included 3699 pregnant women, of which 105 (2.85%) were diagnosed with HDP. After adjusting for potential confounders, VitD deficiency at T2, as well as the change of 25(OH)D level between T1 and T2, were negatively associated with DBP at T2 and T3, but not HDP. Polymorphisms in CYP24A1, GC, and LRP2 genes were associated with blood pressure and HDP. In addition, VitD interacted with CYP24A1, GC, and VDR genes’ polymorphisms on blood pressure. Furthermore, participants with polymorphisms in CYP24A1-rs2248137, LRP2-rs2389557, and LRP2-rs4667591 and who had VitD deficiency at T2 showed an increased risk of HDP. Conclusions: The individual and interactive association between VitD deficiency during pregnancy and SNPs in the genes of the VitD metabolic pathway on blood pressure and HDP were identified. Full article
Article
Sarcopenia and Mortality in Older Hemodialysis Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2354; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112354 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
(1) Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sarcopenia, defined according to the Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) diagnostic criteria, with mortality at 24 months [...] Read more.
(1) Sarcopenia is a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The aim of this study was to determine the association of sarcopenia, defined according to the Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) diagnostic criteria, with mortality at 24 months in very elderly hemodialysis patients. (2) A prospective study was conducted in 60 patients on chronic hemodialysis who were older than 75 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to EWGSOP2 criteria. Additionally, clinical, anthropometric and analytical variables and body composition by bioimpedance were assessed. The date and cause of death were recorded during 2 years of follow-up. (3) Among study participants, 41 (68%) were men, the mean age 81.85 ± 5.58 years and the dialysis vintage was 49.88 ± 40.29 months. The prevalence of probable sarcopenia was 75% to 97%, depending on the criteria employed: confirmed sarcopenia ranged from 37 to 40%, and severe sarcopenia ranged from 18 to 37%. A total of 30 (50%) patients died over 24 months. Sarcopenia probability variables were not related to mortality. In contrast, sarcopenia confirmation (appendicular skeletal muscle mass, ASM) and severity (gait speed, GS) variables were associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for all-cause death was 3.03 (1.14–8.08, p = 0.028) for patients fulfilling ASM sarcopenia criteria and 3.29 (1.04–10.39, p = 0.042) for patients fulfilling GS sarcopenia criteria. (4) The diagnosis of sarcopenia by EWGSOP2 criteria is associated with an increased risk of all-cause death in elderly dialysis patients. Specifically, ASM and GS criteria could be used as mortality risk markers in elderly hemodialysis patients. Future studies should address whether the early diagnosis and treatment of sarcopenia improve outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolic and Dietary Features in Renal Diseases and Transplantation)
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Review
Vitamin D, the Vitamin D Receptor, Calcitriol Analogues and Their Link with Ocular Diseases
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2353; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112353 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 730
Abstract
The global prevalence of eye diseases continues to grow, bringing with it a reduction in the activity levels and quality of life of patients, and partial or complete blindness if left untreated. As such, there is considerable interest in identifying more effective therapeutic [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of eye diseases continues to grow, bringing with it a reduction in the activity levels and quality of life of patients, and partial or complete blindness if left untreated. As such, there is considerable interest in identifying more effective therapeutic options and preventive agents. One such agent is vitamin D, known to have a range of anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, and whose deficiency is linked to the pathogenesis of a range of cardiovascular, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. This review presents the current stage of knowledge concerning the link between vitamin D and its receptor and the occurrence of eye disease, as well as the influence of analogues of calcitriol, an active metabolite of vitamin D. Generally, patients affected by various ocular disorders have vitamin D deficiency. In addition, previous findings suggest that vitamin D modulates the course of eye diseases and may serve as a marker, and that its supplementation could mitigate some disorders. However, as these studies have some limitations, we recommend further randomized trials to clarify the link between vitamin D and its activity with eye disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D Receptor in Human Health and Disease)
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Review
Evaluating the Nutritional Properties of Food: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2352; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112352 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 600
Abstract
There are many methods or indicators used for evaluating the nutritional value of foods; however, it is difficult to accurately reflect the comprehensive nutritional value of a food with a single indicator, and a systematic evaluation system is lacking. In this article, we [...] Read more.
There are many methods or indicators used for evaluating the nutritional value of foods; however, it is difficult to accurately reflect the comprehensive nutritional value of a food with a single indicator, and a systematic evaluation system is lacking. In this article, we systematically summarize the common evaluation methods and indicators of the nutritional value of foods. The purpose of this review was to establish an evaluation procedure for nutritional properties of foodstuffs and to help scientists choose more direct and economical evaluation methods according to food types or relevant indicators. The procedure involves the selection of a three-level evaluation method that covers the whole spectrum of a food’s nutritional characteristics. It is applicable to scientific research in the fields of agricultural science, food science, nutrition, and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
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Article
Differential Effects of Obesity, Hyperlipidaemia, Dietary Intake and Physical Inactivity on Type I versus Type IV Allergies
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2351; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112351 - 05 Jun 2022
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Background: Alongside metabolic diseases (esp. obesity), allergic disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent. Since both obesity and allergies are highly impacted by environmental determinants, with this study we assessed the potential link between metabolic implications and two distinct types of allergies. Methods: Using cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Background: Alongside metabolic diseases (esp. obesity), allergic disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent. Since both obesity and allergies are highly impacted by environmental determinants, with this study we assessed the potential link between metabolic implications and two distinct types of allergies. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the German FoCus cohort, n = 385 allergy cases, either hay fever (=type I allergy, n = 183) or contact allergy (=type IV allergy, n = 202) were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (1:1 ratio, in total n = 770) regarding their metabolic phenotype, diet, physical activity, sleep, gut microbial composition, and serum metabolite profile using suitable BMI-adjusted models. Results: Obesity and metabolic alterations were found significantly more prevalent in subjects with allergies. In fact, this relation was more pronounced in contact allergy than hay fever. Subsequent BMI-adjusted analysis reveals particular importance of co-occurring hyperlipidaemia for both allergy types. For contact allergy, we revealed a strong association to the dietary intake of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, particularly α-linolenic acid, as well as the enrichment of the corresponding metabolic pathway. For hay fever, there were no major associations to the diet but to a lower physical activity level, shorter duration of sleep, and an altered gut microbial composition. Finally, genetic predisposition for hyperlipidaemia was associated to both contact allergy and hay fever. Conclusions: Reflected by higher allergy prevalence, our findings indicate an impaired immune response in obesity and hyperlipidaemia, which is differentially regulated in type I and type IV allergies by an unfavourable lifestyle constellation and subsequent microbial and metabolic dysfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Nutrients in Asthma and Allergic Disorders)
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Article
Patterns and Predictors of Breast Milk Feeding from Birth to Age 4 Months among Primiparous African American Mother–Infant Dyads
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2350; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112350 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The health benefits of breast milk feeding have been well-established, yet disparities exist, with African American mothers having the lowest breast milk feeding rates in the United States. This prospective, longitudinal study examined infant feeding (breast milk and/or infant formula) from birth to [...] Read more.
The health benefits of breast milk feeding have been well-established, yet disparities exist, with African American mothers having the lowest breast milk feeding rates in the United States. This prospective, longitudinal study examined infant feeding (breast milk and/or infant formula) from birth to age 16 weeks, predictors of any breast milk feeding by age 1 week, and predictors of cessation of any breast milk feeding by ages 3, 8, and 16 weeks among primiparous African American mothers. This secondary analysis included 185 mother–infant dyads from the Sleep SAAF (Strong African American Families) study, a randomized clinical trial testing a responsive parenting vs. child safety control intervention. Mothers reported sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics at age 1 week and infant feeding practices at ages 1, 3, 8, and 16 weeks. Rates of any breast milk feeding decreased from 66.5% at 1 week to 23.3% at 16 weeks. Bivariate logistic regression models showed that prepregnancy BMI (OR = 1.09), working prepregnancy (OR = 2.25), and food insecurity (OR = 2.49) significantly increased the odds of mothers feeding any breast milk by 1 week, whereas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participation (OR = 0.21) significantly decreased the odds. Bivariate logistic regression models showed that Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation (OR = 2.86) and racial discrimination (OR = 2.14) significantly increased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 3 weeks. SNAP (OR = 2.33) and WIC (OR = 2.38) participation significantly increased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 8 weeks, whereas higher prepregnancy BMI (OR = 0.95) decreased the odds. Higher mother’s age (OR = 0.92) significantly decreased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 16 weeks. The findings can be used to inform targeted interventions to promote mothers feeding any breast milk and help reduce breast milk feeding disparities among African American mothers. Full article
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Opinion
Glucose as a Potential Key to Fuel Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2349; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112349 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Glucose is the most important source of energy and homeostasis. Recent investigations are clarifying that glucose metabolism might be altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which would play a role in the inflammatory phenotype of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. It may also play a role [...] Read more.
Glucose is the most important source of energy and homeostasis. Recent investigations are clarifying that glucose metabolism might be altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which would play a role in the inflammatory phenotype of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. It may also play a role in a variety of autoimmune diseases’ pathophysiology by modulating immune responses and modifying autoantigen expressions. The research into glucose and its metabolism could lead to a better understanding of how carbohydrates contribute to the occurrence and duration of RA and other autoimmune diseases. Full article
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Article
Nocturnal Lifestyle Behaviours and Risk of Poor Sleep during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2348; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112348 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
The extent to which lifestyle practices at night influence sleep quality in pregnant women remains unknown. This study aimed to examine whether nocturnal behaviours were associated with poor sleep during pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of pregnant women [...] Read more.
The extent to which lifestyle practices at night influence sleep quality in pregnant women remains unknown. This study aimed to examine whether nocturnal behaviours were associated with poor sleep during pregnancy. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort of pregnant women at 18–24 gestation weeks recruited from KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, between 2019 and 2021. Nocturnal behaviours were assessed with questionnaires, and sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with a global score ≥5 indicative of poor sleep quality. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine the association between nocturnal behaviour and sleep quality. Of 299 women, 117 (39.1%) experienced poor sleep. In the covariate-adjusted analysis, poor sleep was observed in women with nocturnal eating (risk ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 2.04) and nocturnal artificial light exposure (1.63; 1.24, 2.13). Similarly, nocturnal eating (β 0.68; 95% CI 0.03, 1.32) and light exposure (1.99; 1.04, 2.94) were associated with higher PSQI score. Nocturnal physical activity and screen viewing before bedtime were not associated with sleep quality. In conclusion, reducing nocturnal eating and light exposure at night could potentially improve sleep in pregnancy. Full article
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Article
The Comparative Analysis of Genomic Diversity and Genes Involved in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Eighty-Eight Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Isolates from Different Niches of China
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112347 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Eighty-eight Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strains, which were isolated from human, chicken and cow fecal samples from different niches of China, were compared genomically in this study to evaluate their diversity. It was found that B. pseudocatenulatum displayed a closed pan-genome, including abundant glycoside hydrolase [...] Read more.
Eighty-eight Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strains, which were isolated from human, chicken and cow fecal samples from different niches of China, were compared genomically in this study to evaluate their diversity. It was found that B. pseudocatenulatum displayed a closed pan-genome, including abundant glycoside hydrolase families of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy). A total of 30 kinds of glycoside hydrolases (GHs), 14 kinds of glycosyl transferases (GTs), 13 kinds of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), 6 kinds of carbohydrate-esterases (CEs), and 2 kinds of auxiliary activities (AAs) gene families were identified across the genomes of the 88 B. pseudocatenulatum strains. Specifically, this showed that significant differences were also present in the number of 10 carbohydrate-active enzyme gene families (GT51, GH13_32, GH26, GH42, GH121, GH3, AA3, CBM46, CE2, and CE6) among the strains derived from the hosts of different age groups, particularly between strains from infants and those from other human age groups. Twelve different individuals of B. pseudocatenulatum from four main clusters were selected for further study to reveal the genetic diversity of carbohydrate metabolism-related genes within the same phylogenetics. The animal experiment showed that 3 weeks of oral administration and 1 week after cessation of administration of these strains did not markedly alter the serum routine inflammatory indicators in mice. Furthermore, the administration of these strains did not significantly cause adverse changes in the gut microbiota, as indicated by the α- and β-diversity indexes, relative to the control group (normal diet). Beyond that, FAHBZ9L5 significantly increased the abundance of B. pseudocatenulatum after 3 weeks and significantly increased the abundance of acetic acid and butyric acid in the host’s intestinal tract 3 and 4 weeks after the first administration, respectively, compared with the control group. Corresponding to this, comparative genomic analyses of 12 B. pseudocatenulatum suggest that FAHBZ9L5-specific genes were rich in ABC transporters and carbohydrate esterase. Combining the results of comparative genomics analyses and animal experiment, it is suggested that the strains containing certain gene clusters contribute to another competitive growth advantage of B. pseudocatenulatum, which facilitates its intestinal carbohydrate metabolism in a host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Lactobacillus and Probiotics in Human Health and Diseases)
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Article
Recommendations for the Development of Family-Based Interventions Aiming to Prevent Unhealthy Changes in Energy Balance-Related Behavior during the Transition to Parenthood: A Focus Group Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112346 - 04 Jun 2022
Viewed by 531
Abstract
Feasible interventions addressing unhealthy changes in energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) during pregnancy and early postpartum are needed. This study identified the needs and wishes of expecting and first-time parents concerning EBRB interventions during the transition to parenthood. Thirteen focus group discussions (n = [...] Read more.
Feasible interventions addressing unhealthy changes in energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) during pregnancy and early postpartum are needed. This study identified the needs and wishes of expecting and first-time parents concerning EBRB interventions during the transition to parenthood. Thirteen focus group discussions (n = 74) were conducted. Couples provided information about whether an intervention targeting unhealthy EBRB changes during pregnancy and postpartum would be acceptable, how such an intervention should look like, and in which way and during which period they needed support. Guided by the TiDIER checklist, all quotes were divided into five main categories (i.e., ‘what’, ‘how’, ‘when and how much’, ‘where’, ‘for and from whom’). Interventions should aim for changes at the individual, social, environmental and policy levels. The accessibility and approach (indirect or face-to-face) together with communicational aspects should be taken into account. A focus should go to delivering reliable and personalized information and improving self-regulation skills. Interventions should be couple- or family-based. Authorities, healthcare professionals, the partner and peers are important sources for intervention delivery and support. In the prevention of unhealthy EBRB changes around childbirth, the involvement of both parents is needed, while health care professionals play an important role in providing personalized advice. Full article
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Review
Dietary and Nutrient Patterns and Brain MRI Biomarkers in Dementia-Free Adults
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2345; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112345 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Cognitive impairment is a rapidly growing public health problem. As there is no curative treatment for dementia, the proactive management of modifiable risk factors and the identification of early biomarkers indicative of the cognitive decline are of great importance. Although nutrition is one [...] Read more.
Cognitive impairment is a rapidly growing public health problem. As there is no curative treatment for dementia, the proactive management of modifiable risk factors and the identification of early biomarkers indicative of the cognitive decline are of great importance. Although nutrition is one of the most extensively studied lifestyle factor in relation to cognitive health, its association with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers is not well established. In the present work, we review available studies relating dietary or nutrient patterns with brain MRI biomarkers in dementia-free adults. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with the preservation of structural connectivity and less brain atrophy in adults without dementia. In addition, specific nutrient patterns, characterized by a high intake of antioxidant vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids, have been related to larger brain volume. Although the results are encouraging regarding the role of dietary and nutrient patterns on imaging biomarkers, more well-designed observational longitudinal studies and clinical trials are needed in order to confirm potentially causal relationships and better understand underlying mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Randomized Clinical Trial: Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB)-Enriched vs. HMB-Free Oral Nutritional Supplementation in Malnourished Cirrhotic Patients
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112344 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 652
Abstract
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation increases muscle and strength mass in some muscle-wasting disorders. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are often present in liver cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of oral HMB supplementation on changes in body composition and liver status in patients with cirrhosis [...] Read more.
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation increases muscle and strength mass in some muscle-wasting disorders. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are often present in liver cirrhosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of oral HMB supplementation on changes in body composition and liver status in patients with cirrhosis and malnutrition. In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, 43 individuals were randomized to receive twice a day and for 12 weeks an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) enriched with 1.5 g of calcium HMB per bottle or another supplement with similar composition devoid of HMB. Inclusion criteria were liver cirrhosis with at least one previous decompensation and clinical malnutrition. Liver function, plasma biochemistry analyses, and physical condition assessment were carried out at baseline, then after six and 12 weeks of supplementation. A total of 34 patients completed the clinical trial. An improvement in liver function and an increase in fat mass index were observed in both groups. None of the two ONS changed the fat-free mass. However, we observed an upward trend in handgrip strength and a downward trend in minimal hepatic encephalopathy in the HMB group. At the end of the trial and regardless of the supplement administered, fat mass content increased with no change in fat-free mass, while liver function scores and nutritional analytic markers also improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
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Review
Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2343; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112343 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1284
Abstract
Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels [...] Read more.
Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Circadian Disruption and Cardiometabolic Health)
Article
Gluten-Free Cereals and Pseudocereals as a Potential Source of Exposure to Toxic Elements among Polish Residents
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2342; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112342 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
Background: Nutritional food quality plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. However, food and drinking water, along with occupational exposure, are the main routes of exposure to toxic elements for humans. The main aim of this study was to determine the content [...] Read more.
Background: Nutritional food quality plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. However, food and drinking water, along with occupational exposure, are the main routes of exposure to toxic elements for humans. The main aim of this study was to determine the content of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in naturally gluten-free grains and products made from buckwheat, millet, maize, quinoa and oat. The safety of consumption of the products tested was also assessed. Methods: The contents of As, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). To measure Hg, an atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS) with the amalgamation technique was applied. To assess the level of consumption of the tested products, an online survey was conducted. To estimate health risk, three indicators were used: the target hazard quotient (THQ), cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI). The research material obtained 242 different samples without replications. Results: The highest average content of As, Cd, Pb and Hg were observed for the following groups of products: oat (10.19 µg/kg), buckwheat (48.35 µg/kg), millet (74.52 µg/kg) and buckwheat (1.37 µg/kg), respectively. For six samples, exceedance of established limits was found—three in the case of Cd and three of Pb. Due to the lack of established limits, As and Hg content of the tested products was not compared. Generally, no increased health risks were identified. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, the consumption of gluten-free cereals and pseudocereals available on the Polish market seems to be safe. However, there is a great need to establish maximum levels of the toxic elements, especially As and Hg in cereal products in European legislation. Full article
Article
US Consumer Identification of the Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber and Consideration of Fiber When Making Food Choices
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112341 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to (1) determine beliefs in the health benefits of dietary fiber, an under-consumed nutrient of public health concern, and (2) determine the relationship between beliefs about dietary fiber and consideration of fiber when making food choices. We [...] Read more.
The purposes of this study were to (1) determine beliefs in the health benefits of dietary fiber, an under-consumed nutrient of public health concern, and (2) determine the relationship between beliefs about dietary fiber and consideration of fiber when making food choices. We conducted a nationally representative within-subject randomized online survey of 42,018 US primary shoppers in May–June 2021. Participants selected health benefits they believed were associated with consumption of fiber from a list of six benefits recognized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), one indirect benefit, and one unrelated benefit. Respondents then indicated which nutrients, if any, they considered when making food choices. Respondents selected 1.77 (95% CI = 1.76–1.77) FDA-recognized benefits out of a total six; half (50.6%) of respondents identified zero or one FDA-recognized benefit. The most-cited benefit was “improving bowel movements” (64.4%). Older participants perceived significantly more FDA-recognized fiber benefits. Identification of FDA-recognized benefits increased odds ratios for consideration of fiber during food choice (relative to zero benefits) from 3.0 for one benefit (95% CI = 2.8–3.3) to 14.3 for six benefits (95% CI = 12.4–16.6). Consumers are largely unaware of the many health benefits of dietary fiber, which dramatically decreases the likelihood that they consider this important, under-consumed nutrient during food choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
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Article
Randomised Clinical Trial to Analyse the Efficacy of Eggshell Membrane to Improve Joint Functionality in Knee Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112340 - 03 Jun 2022
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Osteoarthritis is a source of chronic pain and disability. Dietary supplements have been shown to be a more secure option than NSAIDS. Particularly, the eggshell membrane has demonstrated efficacy in relieving joint pain and stiffness. A clinical trial was designed in which three [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis is a source of chronic pain and disability. Dietary supplements have been shown to be a more secure option than NSAIDS. Particularly, the eggshell membrane has demonstrated efficacy in relieving joint pain and stiffness. A clinical trial was designed in which three groups were assigned to two different doses of this supplement and compared to a placebo control group. The primary outcome variable was knee pain, which was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Secondary outcome variables were knee functional ability, quadriceps muscle strength (assessed by isometric and isokinetic trials), and quality of sleep. All groups showed a significant decrease in pain perception, although maximum values were obtained in the high-dose group. Isokinetic and isometric trials showed a significant increase in strength in the high-dose group. Eggshell membrane showed the potential to reduce pain and stiffness symptomatology. Here, for the first time, two quantitative variables (mobility and strength of knee joint) were used to accurately evaluate changes in the quality of life of subjects affected by knee joint pain. The results of this study indicate a dose-dependent response, which should be taken into account for later use in therapeutics to establish the correct dosage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Nutrition and Lifestyle in Aging and Age-Related Diseases)
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Article
The Mediating Effect of Inflammation between the Dietary and Health-Related Behaviors and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescence
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112339 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Chronic diseases develop via complex pathways, depending on the degree of exposure to risk factors from early in life and childhood onward. Metabolic syndrome has multiple risk factors, including genetic factors, inappropriate diet, and insufficient physical activity. This study classified health-related behavior classes [...] Read more.
Chronic diseases develop via complex pathways, depending on the degree of exposure to risk factors from early in life and childhood onward. Metabolic syndrome has multiple risk factors, including genetic factors, inappropriate diet, and insufficient physical activity. This study classified health-related behavior classes in childhood and adolescents and analyzed the direct and indirect effects of each class on the metabolic risk in inflammation-mediated pathways. We identified the health-related lifestyle classes based on health-related behavior indicators in subjects aged 3–15 years who participated in the Ewha Birth and Growth Cohort Study by using a latent class analysis. A mediation analysis was performed to access the direct and indirect effects of each class on the continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS), with the inflammatory index used as a mediating factor. Subjects were classified into inactive and positive lifestyle classes according to their characteristics. In the inactive lifestyle class, interleukin (IL)-6 and cMetS had a significant association. The study confirmed that IL-6 exerts a significant indirect effect between inactive lifestyle and cMetS. This result supports previous studies. Since the health behaviors of children and adolescents can affect the likelihood of subsequent metabolic syndrome, appropriate health behavior interventions for this period are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary, Lifestyle and Children Health)
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Article
Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Effects of Ephedra foeminea Aqueous Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112338 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Background: Ephedra foeminea is known in Jordan as Alanda and traditionally. It is used to treat respiratory symptoms such as asthma and skin rashes as an infusion in boiling water. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic property of Ephedra [...] Read more.
Background: Ephedra foeminea is known in Jordan as Alanda and traditionally. It is used to treat respiratory symptoms such as asthma and skin rashes as an infusion in boiling water. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic property of Ephedra foeminea aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: The aqueous extract of Ephedra foeminea plant was used to determine the potential of its efficacy in the treatment of diabetes, and this extract was tested on diabetic rats as a model. The chemical composition of Ephedra foeminea aqueous extract was determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Antioxidant activity was assessed using two classical assays (ABTS and DPPH). Results: The most abundant compounds in the Ephedra foeminea extract were limonene (6.3%), kaempferol (6.2%), stearic acid (5.9%), β-sitosterol (5.5%), thiamine (4.1%), riboflavin (3.1%), naringenin (2.8%), kaempferol-3-rhamnoside (2.3%), quercetin (2.2%), and ferulic acid (2.0%). The antioxidant activity of Ephedra foeminea aqueous extract was remarkable, as evidenced by radical scavenging capacities of 12.28 mg Trolox/g in ABTS and 72.8 mg GAE/g in DPPH. In comparison to control, induced diabetic rats treated with Ephedra foeminea extract showed significant improvement in blood glucose levels, lipid profile, liver, and kidney functions. Interleukin 1 and glutathione peroxidase levels in the spleen, pancreas, kidney, and liver of induced diabetic rats treated with Ephedra foeminea extract were significantly lower than in untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Ephedra foeminea aqueous extract appears to protect diabetic rats against oxidative stress and improve blood parameters. In addition, it has antioxidant properties that might be very beneficial medicinally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
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Article
Selected Organizational and Managerial Aspects of Health and Nutrition Education of Various Types of Consumers of Spa Treatment Services in Poland
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112337 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Consumer education, including nutrition education, understood as a process based on scientific principles, is becoming a very effective element in influencing the health of the population in the modern world. This work is based on direct research carried out in 2016–2018 in the [...] Read more.
Consumer education, including nutrition education, understood as a process based on scientific principles, is becoming a very effective element in influencing the health of the population in the modern world. This work is based on direct research carried out in 2016–2018 in the form of a questionnaire interview among patients—consumers of educational services in spa treatment facilities. The research sample was N = 1000 (600 people were tested with the use of PAPI (Paper and Pencil Interview), and 400 people with the use of CAWI (Computer-Assisted Web Interview)) and concerned a representative group of spa patients in Poland. In addition, as a supplement, a direct survey was conducted in the form of a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview with managers of spa treatment facilities (N = 50). Consumers of spa treatment services differ from each other, and types can be distinguished based on their professional activity status and the type of entity that pays for their stay in the spa, and, using cluster analysis, the status of professional activity in relation to their education level. The nutritional education system is based on highly specialized medical personnel. At the same time, it does not use the available assessment tools based on proven monitoring and evaluation indicators. Health education, which also includes nutritional education, apart from disease prevention, is the basic tool for health promotion in spa treatment conditions, enabling the introduction of a permanent change in the patients’ lifestyles, the additional advantages of which are low costs and relatively high efficiency. In the course of the study, several useful patient profiles were also distinguished, thanks to which it is possible to select dedicated educational methods for selected groups of recipients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Article
Associations of Vitamin B6 Intake and Plasma Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate with Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in US Older Adults: Findings from NHANES 2003–2004
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112336 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Previous evidence suggests a potential dual impact of aging and vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism; gender may influence PUFA biosynthesis. Perturbation of PUFA compositions during B6 deficiency could be linked to age-related health outcomes. However, little is known [...] Read more.
Previous evidence suggests a potential dual impact of aging and vitamin B6 (B6) deficiency on polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism; gender may influence PUFA biosynthesis. Perturbation of PUFA compositions during B6 deficiency could be linked to age-related health outcomes. However, little is known about the interrelationships between vitamin B6, PUFA, and gender in the older population. Therefore, we investigated whether gender-specific associations of B6 intake and plasma pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) concentration, respectively, with plasma PUFA concentrations and ratios (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA), EPA + DHA, EPA/AA, and (EPA + DHA)/AA) existed in older adults. We further examined the relationships of adequate B6 status (PLP ≥ 20 nmol/L) with high (above median) plasma PUFA relative to deficient B6 status. This cross-sectional study analyzed 461 participants aged ≥60 years from NHANES 2003–2004. Nutrient intakes were assessed using two 24-h recalls and supplement questionnaires. PLP and PUFA concentrations were measured. Multivariate linear regression assessed the association of B6 intake and PLP with PUFA; multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of adequate B6 status with high plasma PUFA, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and dietary factors; physical activity; smoking; alcohol; medication; and BMI. There were interactions between gender and B6 intake on EPA (P-interaction = 0.008) and AA (P-interaction = 0.004) only, whereas no interaction existed between gender and PLP on PUFA. PLP was directly associated with EPA (β = 0.181, P = 0.002), DHA (β = 0.109, P = 0.005), EPA + DHA (β = 0.14, P = 0.002), EPA/AA (β = 0.186, P = 0.004), and (EPA + DHA)/AA (β = 0.13, P = 0.026). The odds of having high plasma EPA (adjusted (a) OR: 2.03, P = 0.049) and EPA/AA (aOR: 3.83, P < 0.0001) were greater in those with adequate B6 status compared to those with deficient B6 status. In conclusion, in US older adults, a higher PLP level was associated with a greater level of EPA, DHA, EPA + DHA, EPA/AA, and (EPA + DHA)/AA. Adequate B6 status was associated with high EPA and EPA/AA status. These findings suggest that sufficient vitamin B6 status may positively influence PUFA metabolism in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
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Article
Diet and Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Mediterranean Countries
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112335 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Background: The increased intake of FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol) rich foods has been suggested as a possible trigger of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Despite the high FODMAP content, the Mediterranean diet (MD) appears to have beneficial effects on health. Our [...] Read more.
Background: The increased intake of FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol) rich foods has been suggested as a possible trigger of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Despite the high FODMAP content, the Mediterranean diet (MD) appears to have beneficial effects on health. Our aim was to evaluate whether the prevalence of FGIDs in different Mediterranean countries may be influenced by FODMAP consumption and adherence to the MD. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional, multicenter study was performed in six countries in the Mediterranean area: Croatia, Greece, Israel, Italy, Macedonia, and Serbia. Subjects 4-18 years were examined in relation to their eating habits and the presence of FGIDs, using Rome IV criteria, 3-day food diaries and Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in Children and Adolescents (KIDMED) questionnaires. Results: We enrolled 1972 subjects between 4 and 9 years old (Group A), and 2450 subjects between 10 and 18 years old (Group B). The overall prevalence of FGIDs was 16% in Group A and 26% in Group B. FODMAP intake was significantly different among countries for both age groups. In both groups, no significant association was found between FGIDs and FODMAPs. Adherence to the MD in all countries was intermediate, except for Serbia, where it was low. In both groups, we found a statistically significant association between FGIDs and the KIDMED score (Group A: OR = 0.83, p < 0.001; Group B: OR = 0.93, p = 0.005). Moreover, a significant association was found between the KIDMED score and functional constipation (Group A: OR = 0.89, p = 0.008; Group B: OR = 0.93, p = 0.010) and postprandial distress syndrome (Group A: OR = 0.86, p = 0.027; Group B: OR = 0.88, p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the prevalence of FGIDs in the Mediterranean area is not related to FODMAP consumption, whereas adherence to the MD seems to have a protective effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Nutrition)
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Article
Social Determinants of Obesity and Stunting among Brazilian Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112334 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 562
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of obesity and stunting among Brazilian adolescents and its associations with social determinants of health (individual, family, and school), grounded on the necessity of investigating the determinants of nutritional problems within [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of obesity and stunting among Brazilian adolescents and its associations with social determinants of health (individual, family, and school), grounded on the necessity of investigating the determinants of nutritional problems within this population. (2) Methods: A population-based survey was administered to 16,556 adolescents assessed by the 2015 National School Health Survey. Multivariate models of obesity and stunting were estimated from Multilevel Poisson Regressions. (3) Results: The prevalence of obesity among Brazilian adolescents (10.0%; 95% CI: 9.4–10.6) was associated directly with indifference or dissatisfaction with body image, with eating breakfast four or fewer days a week, living with up to four people in the household, studying in private schools, and being from the South region, and was inversely associated with being female, 15 years old or older, with having the highest nutritional risk eating pattern, dining at fast-food restaurants, and eating while watching television or studying. The prevalence of stunting (2.3%; 95% CI: 2.0–2.8) was directly associated with the age of 15 years or older, and inversely associated with the lower number of residents living in the household, maternal education—decreasing gradient from literate to college level education, studying in urban schools, and being from the South and Central-West regions. (4) Conclusions: Obesity in adolescence presented behavioral determinants. Stunting and obesity have structural social determinants related, respectively, to worse and better socioeconomic position among Brazilian adolescents. Full article
Article
Astragalus Shiitake—A Novel Functional Food with High Polysaccharide Content and Anti-Proliferative Activity in a Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112333 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
The chemical and nutritional constituents of mushrooms can alter significantly when grown on different substrates. Based on this fact, an approach was made to cultivate a new type of mushroom, Hengshan Astragalus Shiitake, by growing Shiitake mushrooms on beds supplemented with the roots [...] Read more.
The chemical and nutritional constituents of mushrooms can alter significantly when grown on different substrates. Based on this fact, an approach was made to cultivate a new type of mushroom, Hengshan Astragalus Shiitake, by growing Shiitake mushrooms on beds supplemented with the roots of an edible herbal plant, Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, three green extraction techniques, including microwave-enzyme assisted (MEA), ultrasound-enzyme assisted (UEA) and microwave-ultrasound-enzyme assisted (MUEA) extractions, were used to compare both the yield and antiproliferative activity of the polysaccharide-rich extracts (PREs) from HAS in human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT 116). Both HAS-A and HAS-B extracts contain significantly higher amounts of polysaccharides when compared to the control (Shiitake extract), regardless of the extraction methods. The PREs from HAS-B have significantly higher anti-proliferative activity in HCT 116 compared to the control when using the UEA extraction method. Our findings demonstrate that HAS-B can become a novel functional food with anti-proliferative activities and the optimization of UEA extraction would help to develop new active extract-based health products. Full article
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Article
Nobiletin Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Placental Damage via Modulating P53 Signaling Pathway
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112332 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Nobiletin (NOB) on the placenta of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats that had undergone reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) surgery and to evaluate the safety of NOB intervention during pregnancy. The results showed that NOB [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Nobiletin (NOB) on the placenta of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats that had undergone reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) surgery and to evaluate the safety of NOB intervention during pregnancy. The results showed that NOB alleviated placental hypoxia, attenuated placental cell apoptosis, and inhibited placental damage in RUPP rats. No side effect of NOB intervention during pregnancy was observed. BeWo cell lines with P53 knockdown were then constructed using lentiviral transfection, and the P53 signaling pathway was found to be essential for NOB to reduce hypoxia-induced apoptosis of the BeWo cell lines. In summary, NOB attenuated hypoxia-induced placental damage by regulating the P53 signaling pathway, and those findings may contribute some insights into the role of NOB in placental development and the prevention of placental-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Phytochemicals and Human Health)
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Article
Glycaemia Fluctuations Improvement in Old-Age Prediabetic Subjects Consuming a Quinoa-Based Diet: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14112331 - 01 Jun 2022
Viewed by 806
Abstract
This study aimed to observe if quinoa could produce a benefit on postprandial glycemia that would result in less progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). A cross-over design pilot clinical study with a nutritional intervention for 8 weeks was performed: 4 weeks on [...] Read more.
This study aimed to observe if quinoa could produce a benefit on postprandial glycemia that would result in less progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D). A cross-over design pilot clinical study with a nutritional intervention for 8 weeks was performed: 4 weeks on a regular diet (RD) and 4 weeks on a quinoa diet (QD). Nine subjects aged ≥65 years with prediabetes were monitored during the first 4 weeks of RD with daily dietary records and FreeStyle Libre®. Subsequently, participants started the QD, where quinoa and 100% quinoa-based products replaced foods rich in complex carbohydrates that they had consumed in the first 4 weeks of RD. The glycemic measurements recorded by the sensors were considered as functions of time, and the effects of nutrients consumed at the intended time period were analyzed by means of a function-on-scalar regression (fosr) model. With QD participants, decreased body weight (−1.6 kg, p = 0.008), BMI (−0.6 kg/m2p = 0.004) and waist circumference (−1.5 cm, p = 0.015) were observed. Nutrients intake changed during QD, namely, decreased carbohydrates (p = 0.004) and increased lipids (p = 0.004) and some amino acids (p < 0.05). The fosr model showed a reduction in postprandial glycemia in QD despite intrapersonal differences thanks to the joint action of different nutrients and the suppression of others consumed on a regular diet. We conclude that in an old age and high T2D-risk population, a diet rich in quinoa reduces postprandial glycemia and could be a promising T2D-preventive strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Glucose Homeostasis)
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