Next Issue
Volume 14, February-1
Previous Issue
Volume 14, January-1

Nutrients, Volume 14, Issue 2 (January-2 2022) – 168 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Several studies relate Mediterranean diet and virgin olive oils (VOO) intake with lower risk of several chronic diseases, including breast cancer. Many of them described antitumor properties of isolated minor compounds present in VOO, but beneficial properties of VOO arise from the effects of all its compounds acting together. The aim of the present study was to test the antitumor effects of two minor compounds from VOO (hydroxytyrosol (HT) and squalene (SQ)) on highly metastatic human breast tumor cells when acting in combination. Both molecules separately have no antitumour activity but when they act in combination, they inhibit cell proliferation, and promote apoptosis and DNA damage in metastatic breast cancer cells. Therefore, our results suggest that the health-promoting properties of VOO may be due, at least in part, to the combined action of these two minor compounds. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Effects of Coffee on the Gastro-Intestinal Tract: A Narrative Review and Literature Update
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 399; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020399 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6683
Abstract
The objective of the present research was to review the state of the art on the consequences of drinking coffee at the different levels of the gastrointestinal tract. At some steps of the digestive process, the effects of coffee consumption seem rather clear. [...] Read more.
The objective of the present research was to review the state of the art on the consequences of drinking coffee at the different levels of the gastrointestinal tract. At some steps of the digestive process, the effects of coffee consumption seem rather clear. This is the case for the stimulation of gastric acid secretion, the stimulation of biliary and pancreatic secretion, the reduction of gallstone risk, the stimulation of colic motility, and changes in the composition of gut microbiota. Other aspects are still controversial, such as the possibility for coffee to affect gastro-esophageal reflux, peptic ulcers, and intestinal inflammatory diseases. This review also includes a brief summary on the lack of association between coffee consumption and cancer of the different digestive organs, and points to the powerful protective effect of coffee against the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review reports the available evidence on different topics and identifies the areas that would most benefit from additional studies. Full article
Article
Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab Fruit) Effect on Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 398; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020398 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Baobab fruits have been traditionally used in Africa due to their therapeutic properties attributed to their high polyphenol content. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of baobab fruit on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults and to measure its bioactive [...] Read more.
Baobab fruits have been traditionally used in Africa due to their therapeutic properties attributed to their high polyphenol content. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of baobab fruit on postprandial glycaemia in healthy adults and to measure its bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The study (NCT05140629) was conducted on 31 healthy subjects. The participants were randomly allocated in the control group (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); n = 16) and in the intervention group (OGTT, followed by administration of 250 mL baobab aqueous extract (BAE); n = 15). Total phenols, proanthocyanins, hydrolyzable tannins, and antioxidant activity (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and inhibition of O2 and NO methods) were quantified. Repeated measures ANOVA of mixed type and independent samples t-test were used. Glycemia incremental area under the curve (p = 0.012) and glucose maximum concentration (p = 0.029) was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. The BAE revealed high total contents of phenols, proanthocyanins, and hydrolyzable tannins, as well as a strong capacity to scavenge superoxide anions and nitric oxide radicals and a high antioxidant activity. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of this food component as a promising source of natural antioxidants and a hypoglycemic agent under glucose load acute conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Predictors of Symptom-Specific Treatment Response to Dietary Interventions in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020397 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1104
Abstract
(1) Background: Predictors of dietary treatment response in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain understudied. We aimed to investigate predictors of symptom improvement during the low FODMAP and the traditional IBS diet for four weeks. (2) Methods: Baseline measures included faecal Dysbiosis Index, food [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Predictors of dietary treatment response in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain understudied. We aimed to investigate predictors of symptom improvement during the low FODMAP and the traditional IBS diet for four weeks. (2) Methods: Baseline measures included faecal Dysbiosis Index, food diaries with daily energy and FODMAP intake, non-gastrointestinal (GI) somatic symptoms, GI-specific anxiety, and psychological distress. Outcomes were bloating, constipation, diarrhea, and pain symptom scores treated as continuous variables in linear mixed models. (3) Results: We included 33 and 34 patients on the low FODMAP and traditional IBS diet, respectively. Less severe dysbiosis and higher energy intake predicted better pain response to both diets. Less severe dysbiosis also predicted better constipation response to both diets. More severe psychological distress predicted worse bloating response to both diets. For the different outcomes, several differential predictors were identified, indicating that baseline factors could predict better improvement in one treatment arm, but worse improvement in the other treatment arm. (4) Conclusions: Psychological, nutritional, and microbial factors predict symptom improvement when following the low FODMAP and traditional IBS diet. Findings may help individualize dietary treatment in IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Nutrition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Marine Oil from C. finmarchicus Enhances Glucose Homeostasis and Liver Insulin Resistance in Obese Prediabetic Individuals
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020396 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
The intermediate state between normal glucose tolerance and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with micro- and macrovascular diseases, requiring safe and cost-effective treatment measures interventions. A novel source of LC n-3 FAs is Calanus finmarchicus Oil, which showed promising effects on [...] Read more.
The intermediate state between normal glucose tolerance and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with micro- and macrovascular diseases, requiring safe and cost-effective treatment measures interventions. A novel source of LC n-3 FAs is Calanus finmarchicus Oil, which showed promising effects on glucose homeostasis in preclinical studies due to anti-obesity effects and/or anti-inflammatory properties. In total, 43 obese patients (BMI: 31.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2) were allocated in the following two groups: (1) Calanus oil group (2 g CO/day) and (2) placebo group (2 g paraffin oil/day). Markers of glucose metabolism, body composition and energy intake were measured at the beginning (t0), after 12 weeks (t12) and 16 weeks (t16). Overall, parameters reflecting abnormal glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in the liver, including fasting insulin (−2.9 mU/L ± 4.10, p < 0.05), HOMA-IR (−0.9 ± 1.28, p < 0.05) and hepatic insulin resistance index (−1.06 ± 1.72 × 106, p < 0.05) significantly enhanced after a 12-week CO-intervention, while no differences were observed in HbA1c, AUC0–2h Glucose, AUC0–2h Insulin, 2 h plasma glucose and muscle insulin sensitivity index. Our results indicate that Calanus oil causes beneficial effects on glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in obese patients, with clinical relevance to be verified in further studies. In addition, the possible active compounds and their mechanisms of action should be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
Article
Plinia trunciflora Extract Administration Prevents HI-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Response, Behavioral Impairments, and Tissue Damage in Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020395 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 482
Abstract
The disruption of redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of brain hypoxia–ischemia (HI); medicinal plants have been studied as a therapeutic strategy, generally associated with the prevention of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. This study evaluates the neuroprotective role [...] Read more.
The disruption of redox homeostasis and neuroinflammation are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of brain hypoxia–ischemia (HI); medicinal plants have been studied as a therapeutic strategy, generally associated with the prevention of oxidative stress and inflammatory response. This study evaluates the neuroprotective role of the Plinia trunciflora fruit extract (PTE) in neonatal rats submitted to experimental HI. The HI insult provoked a marked increase in the lipoperoxidation levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, accompanied by a decrease in the brain concentration of glutathione (GSH). Interestingly, PTE was able to prevent most of the HI-induced pro-oxidant effects. It was also observed that HI increased the levels of interleukin-1β in the hippocampus, and that PTE-treatment prevented this effect. Furthermore, PTE was able to prevent neuronal loss and astrocyte reactivity induced by HI, as demonstrated by NeuN and GFAP staining, respectively. PTE also attenuated the anxiety-like behavior and prevented the spatial memory impairment caused by HI. Finally, PTE prevented neural tissue loss in the brain hemisphere, the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and the striatum ipsilateral to the HI. Taken together our results provide good evidence that the PTE extract has the potential to be investigated as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of brain insult caused by neonatal hypoxia–ischemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Brain Development and Repair)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Genome-Wide Analysis of Disordered Eating Behavior in the Mexican Population
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 394; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020394 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 772
Abstract
Alterations in eating behavior characterized eating disorders (ED). The genetic factors shared between ED diagnoses have been underexplored. The present study performed a genome-wide association study in individuals with disordered eating behaviors in the Mexican population, blood methylation quantitative trait loci (blood-meQTL), summary [...] Read more.
Alterations in eating behavior characterized eating disorders (ED). The genetic factors shared between ED diagnoses have been underexplored. The present study performed a genome-wide association study in individuals with disordered eating behaviors in the Mexican population, blood methylation quantitative trait loci (blood-meQTL), summary data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analysis, and in silico function prediction by different algorithms. The analysis included a total of 1803 individuals. We performed a genome-wide association study and blood-meQTL analysis by logistic and linear regression. In addition, we analyzed in silico functional variant prediction, phenome-wide, and multi-tissue expression quantitative trait loci. The genome-wide association study identified 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated at a nominal value and seven blood-meQTL at a genome-wide threshold. The SNPs show enrichment in genome-wide associations of the metabolic and immunologic domains. In the in silico analysis, the SNP rs10419198 (p-value = 4.85 × 10−5) located on an enhancer mark could change the expression of PRR12 in blood, adipocytes, and brain areas that regulate food intake. Additionally, we found an association of DNA methylation levels of SETBP1 (p-value = 6.76 × 10−4) and SEMG1 (p-value = 5.73 × 10−4) by SMR analysis. The present study supports the previous associations of genetic variation in the metabolic domain with ED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Clinical Impact of Mediterranean Diet Adherence before and after Bariatric Surgery: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020393 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
The population suffering from obesity is rapidly increasing all over the world. Bariatric surgery has shown to be the treatment of choice in patients with severe obesity. A Mediterranean diet has long been acknowledged to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns associated [...] Read more.
The population suffering from obesity is rapidly increasing all over the world. Bariatric surgery has shown to be the treatment of choice in patients with severe obesity. A Mediterranean diet has long been acknowledged to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns associated with a lower incidence of many chronic diseases. The aim of the present narrative review is to summarize the existing research on the clinical impact of a Mediterranean diet before and after bariatric surgery, focusing on its effects on weight loss and improvement in comorbidities. Although the current knowledge is limited, this information could add value and emphasize the importance of adopting a Mediterranean diet before and after bariatric surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Nutrients Intake on Chronic Diseases)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Systematic Review
Sex-Specific Effects of Nutritional Supplements for Infants Born Early or Small: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis (ESSENCE IPD-MA) II: Growth
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020392 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Neonatal nutritional supplements may improve early growth for infants born small, but effects on long-term growth are unclear and may differ by sex. We assessed the effects of early macronutrient supplements on later growth. We searched databases and clinical trials registers from inception [...] Read more.
Neonatal nutritional supplements may improve early growth for infants born small, but effects on long-term growth are unclear and may differ by sex. We assessed the effects of early macronutrient supplements on later growth. We searched databases and clinical trials registers from inception to April 2019. Participant-level data from randomised trials were included if the intention was to increase macronutrient intake to improve growth or development of infants born preterm or small-for-gestational-age. Co-primary outcomes were cognitive impairment and metabolic risk. Supplementation did not alter BMI in childhood (kg/m2: adjusted mean difference (aMD) −0.11[95% CI −0.47, 0.25], p = 0.54; 3 trials, n = 333). Supplementation increased length (cm: aMD 0.37[0.01, 0.72], p = 0.04; 18 trials, n = 2008) and bone mineral content (g: aMD 10.22[0.52, 19.92], p = 0.04; 6 trials, n = 313) in infancy, but not at older ages. There were no differences between supplemented and unsupplemented groups for other outcomes. In subgroup analysis, supplementation increased the height z-score in male toddlers (aMD 0.20[0.02, 0.37], p = 0.03; 10 trials, n = 595) but not in females, and no significant sex interaction was observed (p = 0.21). Macronutrient supplementation for infants born small may not alter BMI in childhood. Supplementation increased growth in infancy, but these effects did not persist in later life. The effects did not differ between boys and girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feeding in Preterm Infants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Antibacterial Activity and Epigenetic Remodeling of Essential Oils from Calabrian Aromatic Plants
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 391; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020391 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 590
Abstract
Natural compounds have historically had a wide application in nutrition. Recently, a fundamental role has been identified for essential oils extracted from aromatic plants for their nutritional, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and as food preservatives. In the present study, essential oils (EOs) from [...] Read more.
Natural compounds have historically had a wide application in nutrition. Recently, a fundamental role has been identified for essential oils extracted from aromatic plants for their nutritional, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and as food preservatives. In the present study, essential oils (EOs) from ten aromatic plants grown in Calabria (Italy), used routinely to impart aroma and taste to food, were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. This activity was investigated against Escherichia coli strain JM109, and its derived antibiotic-resistant cells selected by growing the strain at low concentrations of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Although all the essential oils showed bactericidal activity, those from Clinopodium nepeta, Origanum vulgare, and Foeniculum vulgare displayed the greatest inhibitory effects on the bacterial growth of all cell lines. It is plausible that the antibacterial activity is mediated by epigenetic modifications since the tested essential oils induce methylation both at adenine and cytosine residues in the genomes of most cell lines. This study contributes to a further characterization of the properties of essential oils by shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms that mediate these properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Dietary Interventions on DNA Methylation during Lifecycle)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
A. muciniphila Supplementation in Mice during Pregnancy and Lactation Affects the Maternal Intestinal Microenvironment
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 390; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020390 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 604
Abstract
During pregnancy and lactation, considerable factors that affect the maternal microbiome are associated with the advancement of numerous diseases, which can potentially affect offspring health. Probiotics have shown potential for the maintenance of microbiota homeostasis of mothers in this period. The specific objective [...] Read more.
During pregnancy and lactation, considerable factors that affect the maternal microbiome are associated with the advancement of numerous diseases, which can potentially affect offspring health. Probiotics have shown potential for the maintenance of microbiota homeostasis of mothers in this period. The specific objective of this study was to investigate whether the application of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) during pregnancy and lactation impacts maternal and offspring health. Here we show that dams fed with A. muciniphila is safe, enhances the intestinal barrier and alters gut microbiota composition and diversity at the end of lactation, including the significant enrichment of A. muciniphila and Ruminococcus_1 in offspring from probiotic-fed dams. However, compared with the control group, the fecal metabolites of the A. muciniphila group only changed slightly. Additionally, A. muciniphila supplementation did not significantly increase the abundance of A. muciniphila in the fecal microbiota of offspring mice. Compared with the control group, the fecal metabolic profile of three-week-old offspring of mice fed with A. muciniphila were significantly changed, containing the D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism pathways. These results provided evidence that A. muciniphila supplementation in mice during pregnancy and lactation is safe and seemed to have a more beneficial effect on dams. In the future, using probiotics to regulate maternal microbiomes during pregnancy and lactation could be shown to have a more lasting and beneficial effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics in Diabetes and Metabolism Disorder)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CJLP243 in Patients with Functional Diarrhea and High Fecal Calprotectin Levels
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 389; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020389 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Micro-inflammation in the gut, assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC), is considered a component of the pathogenesis of functional diarrhea (FD). Since probiotics may suppress micro-inflammation in the intestine by competing with harmful bacteria, we hypothesized that they would reduce the ratio of loose [...] Read more.
Micro-inflammation in the gut, assessed by fecal calprotectin (FC), is considered a component of the pathogenesis of functional diarrhea (FD). Since probiotics may suppress micro-inflammation in the intestine by competing with harmful bacteria, we hypothesized that they would reduce the ratio of loose stool symptoms and gut inflammation in patients with FD. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the clinical and laboratory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP243 in FD patients with elevated FC levels for two months. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with FD with elevated FC levels were randomly assigned to either a probiotic group or a placebo group. After 2 months, 10 patients in the probiotic group and 12 patients in the placebo group completed the study, and FD symptoms, FC values, and intestinal flora were re-evaluated in these subjects. The percentage of subjects who had adequate FD relief (decrease in loose stool frequency) in the probiotic group was significantly increased after two months compared with the baseline. In addition, the probiotic group showed a statistically significant decrease in log-transformed FC values compared with the pre-treatment group, whereas the placebo group showed no difference before and after the intervention. Furthermore, the levels of Leuconostoc genus organisms in the gut microbiota composition in the probiotic group increased significantly after the end of the study compared with the baseline values. In this preliminary exploratory research, we found that two months of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CJLP243 treatment resulted in FD symptom improvement, reduced FC values, and increased Leuconostoc levels, suggesting that the intake of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was helpful in those patients. These findings need to be validated via further clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Probiotics, Prebiotics and Postbiotics in Human Health)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome in Children with Down Syndrome: A Pilot Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020388 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobin E-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder. However, little is known about the clinical features of FPIES in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Medical records of children with DS diagnosed at our hospital between 2000 and 2019 were [...] Read more.
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobin E-mediated food hypersensitivity disorder. However, little is known about the clinical features of FPIES in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Medical records of children with DS diagnosed at our hospital between 2000 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 43 children with DS, five (11.6%) were diagnosed with FPIES; all cases were severe. In the FPIES group, the median age at onset and tolerance was 84 days and 37.5 months, respectively. Causative foods were cow’s milk formula and wheat. The surgical history of colostomy was significantly higher in the FPIES group than in the non-FPIES group. A colostomy was performed in two children in the FPIES group, both of whom had the most severe symptoms of FPIES, including severe dehydration and metabolic acidosis. The surgical history of colostomy and postoperative nutrition of formula milk feeding may have led to the onset of FPIES. Therefore, an amino acid-based formula should be considered for children who undergo gastrointestinal surgeries, especially colostomy in neonates or early infants. When an acute gastrointestinal disease is suspected in children with DS, FPIES should be considered. This may prevent unnecessary tests and invasive treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Diet and Food Allergy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Additive Effects of Exercise or Nutrition Intervention in a 24-Month Multidisciplinary Treatment with a Booster Intervention for Children and Adolescents with Overweight or Obesity: The ICAAN Study
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020387 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
This study compared the effects of a real-world multidisciplinary intervention with additional exercise or nutritional elements and investigated the effectiveness of a booster intervention after weight regain. A total of 242 children and adolescents (age- and sex-specific body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th [...] Read more.
This study compared the effects of a real-world multidisciplinary intervention with additional exercise or nutritional elements and investigated the effectiveness of a booster intervention after weight regain. A total of 242 children and adolescents (age- and sex-specific body mass index [BMI] ≥ 85th percentile, mean age: 10.82 years, 60% male) were allocated to three groups: usual care, exercise, or nutrition. Six-month active treatment with 1:1 session and a maintenance stage with group activities were repeated twice to comprise a 24-month intervention. The primary outcome was change % of the BMI z-score (zBMI). A total of 110 (45.4%) participants completed the 24-month intervention. A mixed-effects model analysis indicated no significant interaction effect of the intervention group and treatment phase on the zBMI change % (p = 0.976). However, there was a significant main effect of the treatment phase on zBMI change % at 6 months (β = −2.98, [95% CI, −5.69–0.27]), 18 months (β = −3.99, [95% CI, −6.76–1.22]), and 24 months (β = −3.23, [95% CI, −5.94–0.52]; p = 0.042). The improvements in zBMI, body fat %, and cardiometabolic markers were observed only among males. Whereas the additive effect of intensive exercise or nutritional feedback was not detected in the long term, a booster intervention with 1:1 counseling was effective even after weight regain during the maintenance period. It may be useful to combine individualized counseling with a less intensive form of group care for long-term maintenance in a real-world setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Switching to Regular Diet Partially Resolves Liver Fibrosis Induced by High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet in Mice
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 386; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020386 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
The globally prevalent disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterized by a steatotic and inflammatory liver. In NASH patients, tissue repair mechanisms, activated by the presence of chronic liver damage, lead to the progressive onset of hepatic fibrosis. This scar symptom is a key [...] Read more.
The globally prevalent disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is characterized by a steatotic and inflammatory liver. In NASH patients, tissue repair mechanisms, activated by the presence of chronic liver damage, lead to the progressive onset of hepatic fibrosis. This scar symptom is a key prognostic risk factor for liver-related morbidity and mortality. Conflicting reports discuss the efficiency of dietary interventions on the reversibility of advanced fibrosis established during NASH. In the present study, the effect of dietary interventions was investigated in the outcome of the fibrosis settled in livers of C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD) for 5 or 12 consecutive weeks. Various clinico-pathological investigations, including a histological analysis of the liver, measurement of plasma transaminases, steatosis and fibrosis, were performed. To assess the effectiveness of the dietary intervention on established symptoms, diseased mice were returned to a standard diet (SD) for 4 or 12 weeks. This food management resulted in a drastic reduction in steatosis, liver injuries, inflammatory markers, hepatomegaly and oxidative stress and a gradual improvement in the fibrotic state of the liver tissue. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that dietary intervention can partially reverse liver fibrosis induced by HFHCD feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effect of Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance on Digestive Enzymes and Glucose Absorption in the Small Intestine of Young Rats
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 385; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020385 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 407
Abstract
The reactions of intestinal functional parameters to type 2 diabetes at a young age remain unclear. The study aimed to assess changes in the activity of intestinal enzymes, glucose absorption, transporter content (SGLT1, GLUT2) and intestinal structure in young Wistar rats with type [...] Read more.
The reactions of intestinal functional parameters to type 2 diabetes at a young age remain unclear. The study aimed to assess changes in the activity of intestinal enzymes, glucose absorption, transporter content (SGLT1, GLUT2) and intestinal structure in young Wistar rats with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). To induce these conditions in the T2D (n = 4) and IGT (n = 6) rats, we used a high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 6) or a standard diet (SCD) (n = 6) were used as controls. The results showed that in T2D rats, the ability of the small intestine to absorb glucose was higher in comparison to HFD rats (p < 0.05). This was accompanied by a tendency towards an increase in the number of enterocytes on the villi of the small intestine in the absence of changes in the content of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the brush border membrane of the enterocytes. T2D rats also showed lower maltase and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in the jejunal mucosa compared to the IGT rats (p < 0.05) and lower AP activity in the colon contents compared to the HFD (p < 0.05) and IGT (p < 0.05) rats. Thus, this study provides insights into the adaptation of the functional and structural parameters of the small intestine in the development of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in young representatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Specialized Diet, Obesity and Associated Metabolic Disorders)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Specific High-Protein Weight Loss Program Does Not Impair Renal Function in Patients Who Are Overweight/Obese
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020384 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Although high-protein diets appear to be the most efficient way to lose weight, concerns may arise about their innocuity on renal function. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of a weight loss program on renal function. A multicentric cohort-based [...] Read more.
Although high-protein diets appear to be the most efficient way to lose weight, concerns may arise about their innocuity on renal function. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of a weight loss program on renal function. A multicentric cohort-based study was performed using the RNPC© French national weight loss program. Patients with at least two creatinine measurements at the beginning of the program and at the end of the weight loss phase between 1 January 2016 and 1 July 2021 were included. Renal function was assessed by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). From 4394 patients with two creatinine measurements included, 1579 (35.9%) had normal eGFR (MDRD 90–120 mL/min/1.73 m2), 210 (4.8%) had hyperfiltration (MDRD > 120 mL/min/1.73 m2), 2383 (54.2%) had chronic kidney disease (CKD) grade 2 (MDRD 60–90 mL/min/1.73 m2), and 221 (5.0%) had CKD grade 3 (MDRD 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Multivariable analyses showed no eGFR change for patients in initial CKD grade 2, normal eGFR and hyperfiltration, and a significant increase in CKD grade 3. The RNPC© program avoids renal function impairment during the two first phases, regardless of the initial eGFR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Clinical Impact of Nutritional Status and Sarcopenia in Pediatric Patients with Bone and Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Pilot Retrospective Study (SarcoPed)
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020383 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
Background: We evaluated nutritional and sarcopenia status and their clinical impact in pediatric patients affected by bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Methods: Body mass index (BMI), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and total psoas muscle area (tPMA) at diagnosis and after 12 months were [...] Read more.
Background: We evaluated nutritional and sarcopenia status and their clinical impact in pediatric patients affected by bone and soft tissue sarcomas. Methods: Body mass index (BMI), prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and total psoas muscle area (tPMA) at diagnosis and after 12 months were analyzed. tPMA was measured from single cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) images at L4–L5. Age-specific and sex-specific tPMA Z-scores were retrieved from an online calculator. Results: A total of 21 patients were identified between February 2013 and December 2018. Twelve patients (57.1%) experienced sarcopenia at diagnosis, although not statistically associated with overall survival (OS) (p = 0.09). BMI Z-score, PNI, and tPMA Z-score significantly decreased between diagnosis and after 12 months of treatment (p < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed significant associations between poor OS and the presence of metastasis (p = 0.008), the absence of surgery (p = 0.005), PNI decrease (p = 0.027), and the reduction in tPMA > 25% (p = 0.042) over the 12 months. Conclusions: Sarcopenia affects more than half of the patients at diagnosis. Decreased PNI during 12 months of treatment has significant predictive value for OS. The role of tPMA derived from CT scan among pediatric patients with sarcoma should be investigated in further prospective and larger studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Habits and Interventions in Childhood)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interaction between Dietary Fat Intake and Metabolic Genetic Risk Score on 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in a Turkish Adult Population
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 382; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020382 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 626
Abstract
Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on [...] Read more.
Previous studies have pointed out a link between vitamin D status and metabolic traits, however, consistent evidence has not been provided yet. This cross-sectional study has used a nutrigenetic approach to investigate the interaction between metabolic-genetic risk score (GRS) and dietary intake on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 396 unrelated Turkish adults, aged 24–50 years. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in those with a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele than those with a metabolic-GRS < 1 risk allele (p = 0.020). A significant interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake (energy%) on serum 25(OH)D levels was identified (Pinteraction = 0.040). Participants carrying a metabolic-GRS ≥ 1 risk allele and consuming a high fat diet (≥38% of energy = 122.3 ± 52.51 g/day) had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.006) in comparison to those consuming a low-fat diet (<38% of energy = 82.5 ± 37.36 g/d). In conclusion, our study suggests a novel interaction between metabolic-GRS and dietary fat intake on serum 25(OH)D level, which emphasises that following the current dietary fat intake recommendation (<35% total fat) could be important in reducing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this Turkish population. Nevertheless, further larger studies are needed to verify this interaction, before implementing personalized dietary recommendations for the maintenance of optimal vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Benefits of Vitamin D in Health and Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Modeling the Predictive Value of Evidence-Based Referral Criteria to Support Healthy Gestational Weight Gain among an Australian Pregnancy Cohort
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 381; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020381 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Globally, there has been a renewed focus on addressing gestational weight gain (GWG). In Australia, the Department of Health pregnancy care guidelines recommend women be offered routine weighing and receive brief nutritional and physical activity support during antenatal care visits. Women gaining weight [...] Read more.
Globally, there has been a renewed focus on addressing gestational weight gain (GWG). In Australia, the Department of Health pregnancy care guidelines recommend women be offered routine weighing and receive brief nutritional and physical activity support during antenatal care visits. Women gaining weight outside the Institute of Medicine (IOM)’s weight gain reference values are further recommended to be referred to a dietitian. However, professional and organizational barriers, including an absence of weight gain referral pathways and limited workforce resources, exist with the translation and scaling of these recommendations into practice. This study aimed to explore patterns of GWG among a cohort of Australian pregnant women and to determine if pregnancy weight gains of above or below 2 kg or 5 kg in the second and third trimester can be used to predict total GWG outside recommendations. Sensitivity, specificity, negative, and positive likelihood ratios were calculated. The most predictive time point was 24 weeks’ gestation using the minimum weight change parameter of +/−2 kg, demonstrating reasonable sensitivity (0.81, 95% CI 0.61–0.83) and specificity (0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.83), resulting in 55% (n = 72/131) of the cohort qualifying for dietetic referral. Given the current health service constraints, a review of dietetic services within maternity care is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Nutrition in Pregnancy)
Review
Are We What We Eat? Impact of Diet on the Gut–Brain Axis in Parkinson’s Disease
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 380; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020380 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, such as defects in the gut function, which may occur before the motor symptoms. To date, there are therapies that can improve these symptoms, but there is no cure to avoid the development or [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms, such as defects in the gut function, which may occur before the motor symptoms. To date, there are therapies that can improve these symptoms, but there is no cure to avoid the development or exacerbation of this disorder. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota could have a crucial role in the gut–brain axis, which is a bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Diet can affect the microbiota composition, impacting gut–brain axis functionality. Gut microbiome restoration through probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics or other dietary means could have the potential to slow PD progression. In this review, we will discuss the influence of diet on the bidirectional communication between gut and brain, thus supporting the hypothesis that this disorder could begin in the gut. We also focus on how food-based therapies might then have an influence on PD and could ameliorate non-motor as well as motor symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Editorial
The Rise and Fall of the Mediterranean Diet and Related Nutrients in Preventing Diabetes
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 379; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020379 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
Four years after the successful narrative review of Alkhatib et al [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
Article
Dietary Intakes of Traditional Foods for Dene/Métis in the Dehcho and Sahtú Regions of the Northwest Territories
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 378; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020378 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest [...] Read more.
A dietary transition away from traditional foods and toward a diet of the predominantly unhealthy market is a public health and sociocultural concern throughout Indigenous communities in Canada, including those in the sub-Arctic and remote regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The main aim of the present study is to describe dietary intakes for macronutrients and micronutrients in traditional and market food from the Mackenzie Valley study. We also show the trends of contributions and differences of dietary intakes over time from 1994 data collected and reported by the Centre for Indigenous People’s Nutrition and Environment (CINE) in 1996. Based on 24-h dietary recall data, the study uses descriptive statistics to describe the observed dietary intake of the Dene First Nations communities in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions of the NWT. Indigenous people in Canada, like the sub-Arctic regions of Dehcho and Sahtú of the NWT, continue to consume traditional foods, although as a small percentage of their total dietary intake. The observed dietary intake calls for action to ensure that traditional food remains a staple as it is critical for the wellbeing of Dene in the Dehcho and Sahtú regions and across the territory. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Potential Synbiotic Strategy for the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes: Lactobacillus paracasei JY062 and Exopolysaccharide Isolated from Lactobacillus plantarum JY039
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 377; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020377 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
The disturbance of intestinal microorganisms and the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are mutually influenced. In this study, the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus plantarum JY039 on the adhesion of Lactobacillus paracasei JY062 was investigated, as well as their preventive efficacy [...] Read more.
The disturbance of intestinal microorganisms and the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are mutually influenced. In this study, the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus plantarum JY039 on the adhesion of Lactobacillus paracasei JY062 was investigated, as well as their preventive efficacy against T2D. The results showed that the EPS isolated from L. plantarum JY039 effectively improved the adhesion rate of L. paracasei JY062 to Caco-2 cells (1.8 times) and promoted the proliferation of L. paracasei JY062. In the mice experiment, EPS, L. paracasei JY062 and their complex altered the structure of the intestinal microbiota, which elevated the proportion of Bifidobacterium, Faecalibaculum, while inversely decreasing the proportion of Firmicutes, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae and other bacteria involved in energy metabolism (p < 0.01; p < 0.05); enhanced the intestinal barrier function; promoted secretion of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); and reduced inflammation by balancing pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 (p < 0.01; p < 0.05). These results illustrate that EPS and L. paracasei JY062 have the synbiotic potential to prevent and alleviate T2D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics in Diabetes and Metabolism Disorder)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Temporal Patterns of Glucagon and Its Relationships with Glucose and Insulin following Ingestion of Different Classes of Macronutrients
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 376; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020376 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Background: glucagon secretion and inhibition should be mainly determined by glucose and insulin levels, but the relative relevance of each factor is not clarified, especially following ingestion of different macronutrients. We aimed to investigate the associations between plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin after [...] Read more.
Background: glucagon secretion and inhibition should be mainly determined by glucose and insulin levels, but the relative relevance of each factor is not clarified, especially following ingestion of different macronutrients. We aimed to investigate the associations between plasma glucagon, glucose, and insulin after ingestion of single macronutrients or mixed-meal. Methods: thirty-six participants underwent four metabolic tests, based on administration of glucose, protein, fat, or mixed-meal. Glucagon, glucose, insulin, and C-peptide were measured at fasting and for 300 min following food ingestion. We analyzed relationships between time samples of glucagon, glucose, and insulin in each individual, as well as between suprabasal area-under-the-curve of the same variables (ΔAUCGLUCA, ΔAUCGLU, ΔAUCINS) over the whole participants’ cohort. Results: in individuals, time samples of glucagon and glucose were related in only 26 cases (18 direct, 8 inverse relationships), whereas relationship with insulin was more frequent (60 and 5, p < 0.0001). The frequency of significant relationships was different among tests, especially for direct relationships (p ≤ 0.006). In the whole cohort, ΔAUCGLUCA was weakly related to ΔAUCGLU (p ≤ 0.02), but not to ΔAUCINS, though basal insulin secretion emerged as possible covariate. Conclusions: glucose and insulin are not general and exclusive determinants of glucagon secretion/inhibition after mixed-meal or macronutrients ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Diabetes)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Effectiveness of a Per-Meal Protein Prescription and Nutrition Education with versus without Diet Coaching on Dietary Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Middle-Aged Women
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020375 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Sufficient dietary protein intake is vital to maintaining muscle health with aging. Yet protein intake among adults is often inadequate. This study’s main objective was to examine the impact of nutrition education (NE) and a per-meal protein prescription (PRx) with versus without diet [...] Read more.
Sufficient dietary protein intake is vital to maintaining muscle health with aging. Yet protein intake among adults is often inadequate. This study’s main objective was to examine the impact of nutrition education (NE) and a per-meal protein prescription (PRx) with versus without diet coaching on protein intake. A secondary objective examined its effects on muscle health. Participants included 53 women, age 45–64 years. All participants received NE and PRx; those randomized to coached-group received 10-weeks of diet coaching. Assessments included: protein intake at baseline, weeks 4 and 12 and muscle health (muscle mass, grip strength, five-chair rise test, 4 mgait speed test). The Chi-square test examined percentages of participants meeting PRx between groups. Repeated measures analysis of variance assessed within group and intervention effects on protein intake and muscle health parameters. Protein intake (g/kg body weight) increased (p < 0.001): not-coached (n = 28) 0.8 ± 0.2 to 1.2 ± 0.3 and coached (n = 25) 1.0 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.3 with no significant difference between groups. A greater percentage of coached-group participants met (p = 0.04) breakfast (72%) and met (p < 0.001) three-meal (76%) PRx versus not-coached participants (25% and 53%, respectively). Participants in both groups exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) improved times for the five-chair rise test and 4 mgait speed test. Diet coaching in conjunction with a PRx and NE should be considered to assist individuals in improving protein intake through self-selection of protein-rich foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Proteins and Amino Acids)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Whole Grain Consumption and Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Literature Review of Randomized Control Trials
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020374 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 896
Abstract
Whole grain foods are rich in nutrients, dietary fibre, a range of antioxidants, and phytochemicals, and may have potential to act in an anti-inflammatory manner, which could help impact chronic disease risk. This systematic literature review aimed to examine the specific effects of [...] Read more.
Whole grain foods are rich in nutrients, dietary fibre, a range of antioxidants, and phytochemicals, and may have potential to act in an anti-inflammatory manner, which could help impact chronic disease risk. This systematic literature review aimed to examine the specific effects of whole grains on selected inflammatory markers from human clinical trials in adults. As per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) protocol, the online databases MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched from inception through to 31 August 2021. Randomized control trials (RCTs) ≥ 4 weeks in duration, reporting ≥1 of the following: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), were included. A total of 31 RCTs were included, of which 16 studies recruited overweight/obese individuals, 12 had pre-existing conditions, two were in a healthy population, and one study included participants with prostate cancer. Of these 31 RCTs, three included studies with two intervention arms. A total of 32 individual studies measured CRP (10/32 were significant), 18 individual studies measured IL-6 (2/18 were significant), and 13 individual studies measured TNF (5/13 were significant). Most often, the overweight/obese population and those with pre-existing conditions showed significant reductions in inflammatory markers, mainly CRP (34% of studies). Overall, consumption of whole grain foods had a significant effect in reducing at least one inflammatory marker as demonstrated in 12/31 RCTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Value of Pulses and Whole Grains)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of a Machine Learning Technology in the Definition of Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Status: A Retrospective Study of 2567 Subjects Suffering from Obesity with or without Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 373; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020373 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 664
Abstract
The key factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic alterations observed in many patients with obesity have not been fully characterized. Their identification is crucial, and it would represent a fundamental step towards better management of this urgent public health issue. [...] Read more.
The key factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic alterations observed in many patients with obesity have not been fully characterized. Their identification is crucial, and it would represent a fundamental step towards better management of this urgent public health issue. This aim could be accomplished by exploiting the potential of machine learning (ML) technology. In a single-centre study (n = 2567), we used an ML analysis to cluster patients with metabolically healthy (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obesity, based on several clinical and biochemical variables. The first model provided by ML was able to predict the presence/absence of MHO with an accuracy of 66.67% and 72.15%, respectively, and included the following parameters: HOMA-IR, upper body fat/lower body fat, glycosylated haemoglobin, red blood cells, age, alanine aminotransferase, uric acid, white blood cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. For each of these parameters, ML provided threshold values identifying either MUO or MHO. A second model including IGF-1 zSDS, a surrogate marker of IGF-1 normalized by age and sex, was even more accurate with a 71.84% and 72.3% precision, respectively. Our results demonstrated high IGF-1 levels in MHO patients, thus highlighting a possible role of IGF-1 as a novel metabolic health parameter to effectively predict the development of MUO using ML technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Obesity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Effectiveness of Nutritional Strategies on Improving the Quality of Diet of Children from 6 to 12 Years Old: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020372 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
Dietary habits, that are formed during childhood and consolidated in adulthood, are known to influence the development of future chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions carried [...] Read more.
Dietary habits, that are formed during childhood and consolidated in adulthood, are known to influence the development of future chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional interventions carried out in recent years focused on improving the quality of the diet of the child population. A systematic search of the PubMed and Scopus databases was performed from January 2011 until September 2021. A total of 910 articles were identified and screened based on their title, abstract and full text. Finally, 12 articles were included in the current systematic review. Of those, in six studies the intervention was based on the provision of healthy meals and in the other six studies the intervention focused on modifying the school environment. Six of the studies selected included other components in their intervention such as nutritional education sessions, physical activity and/or families. A wide variety of methods were used for diet assessments, from direct method to questionnaires. The results suggest that interventions that modify the school environment or provide different meals or snacks may be effective in improving children’s dietary patterns, both in the short and long term. Further research is necessary to evaluate the real effectiveness of strategies with multidisciplinary approach (nutritional sessions, physical activity and family’s involvement). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Habits and Interventions in Childhood)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Receptor Mediated Effects of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) on Innate and Adaptative Immunity: Relevance for Food Allergy
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 371; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020371 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
As of late, evidence has been emerging that the Maillard reaction (MR, also referred to as glycation) affects the structure and function of food proteins. MR induces the conformational and chemical modification of food proteins, not only on the level of IgG/IgE recognition, [...] Read more.
As of late, evidence has been emerging that the Maillard reaction (MR, also referred to as glycation) affects the structure and function of food proteins. MR induces the conformational and chemical modification of food proteins, not only on the level of IgG/IgE recognition, but also by increasing the interaction and recognition of these modified proteins by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This affects their biological properties, including digestibility, bioavailability, immunogenicity, and ultimately their allergenicity. APCs possess various receptors that recognize glycation structures, which include receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), scavenger receptors (SRs), galectin-3 and CD36. Through these receptors, glycation structures may influence the recognition, uptake and antigen-processing of food allergens by dendritic cells (DCs) and monocytes. This may lead to enhanced cytokine production and maturation of DCs, and may also induce adaptive immune responses to the antigens/allergens as a result of antigen uptake, processing and presentation to T cells. Here, we aim to review the current literature on the immunogenicity of AGEs originating from food (exogenous or dietary AGEs) in relation to AGEs that are formed within the body (endogenous AGEs), their interactions with receptors present on immune cells, and their effects on the activation of the innate as well as the adaptive immune system. Finally, we review the clinical relevance of AGEs in food allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunomodulation by Food: A Tool for Mitigating Allergic Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Characterizing Individual Differences in Sweet Taste Hedonics: Test Methods, Locations, and Stimuli
Nutrients 2022, 14(2), 370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu14020370 - 15 Jan 2022
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Sweetness drives the consumption of added sugars, so understanding how to best measure sweet hedonics is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods [...] Read more.
Sweetness drives the consumption of added sugars, so understanding how to best measure sweet hedonics is important for developing strategies to lower sugar intake. However, methods to assess hedonic response to sweetness vary, making results across studies difficult to integrate. We compared methods to measure optimal sucrose concentration in 21 healthy adults (1) using paired-comparison preference tracking vs. ratings of liking, (2) with participants in the laboratory vs. at home, and (3) using aqueous solutions vs. vanilla milk. Tests were replicated on separate days to assess test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was similar between laboratory and home testing, but tended to be better for vanilla milk and preference tracking. Optimal sucrose concentration was virtually identical between laboratory and home, slightly lower when estimated via preference tracking, and about 50% lower in vanilla milk. However, optimal sucrose concentration correlated strongly between methods, locations, and stimuli. More than 50% of the variability in optimal sucrose concentration could be attributed to consistent differences among individuals, while much less variability was attributable to differences between methods. These results demonstrate convergent validity between methods, support testing at home, and suggest that aqueous solutions can be useful proxies for some commonly consumed beverages for measuring individual differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Carbohydrates)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop