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Review

Chlorotoxin—A Multimodal Imaging Platform for Targeting Glioma Tumors

1
Frank Laboratory, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Toxins to Drugs)
Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a 36-amino-acid disulfide-containing peptide derived from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. CTX alters physiology in numerous ways. It interacts with voltage gated chloride channels, Annexin-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). CTX-based bioconjugates have been widely subjected to phase I/II clinical trials and have shown substantial promise. Many studies have demonstrated that CTX preferentially binds to neuroectodermal tumors, such as glioblastoma, without cross-reactivity to normal brain cells. With its ability to penetrate the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and its tyrosine residue allows covalent conjugation with functional moieties, CTX is an attractive platform to explore development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for gliomas. In this review, we outline CTX structure and its molecular targets, summarize molecular variations of CTX developed for glioma imaging, and discuss future trends and perspectives for CTX conjugates as a theranostic agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorotoxin; glioblastoma; imaging modalities chlorotoxin; glioblastoma; imaging modalities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cohen, G.; Burks, S.R.; Frank, J.A. Chlorotoxin—A Multimodal Imaging Platform for Targeting Glioma Tumors. Toxins 2018, 10, 496. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10120496

AMA Style

Cohen G, Burks SR, Frank JA. Chlorotoxin—A Multimodal Imaging Platform for Targeting Glioma Tumors. Toxins. 2018; 10(12):496. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10120496

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cohen, Gadi, Scott R. Burks, and Joseph A. Frank 2018. "Chlorotoxin—A Multimodal Imaging Platform for Targeting Glioma Tumors" Toxins 10, no. 12: 496. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins10120496

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