Next Article in Journal
Structural and Mechanistic Features of ClyA-Like α-Pore-Forming Toxins
Next Article in Special Issue
A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya
Previous Article in Journal
Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: The Toxin Forms Highly Cation-Selective Channels in Lipid Bilayers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Mycotoxin Residues on Ready-to-Eat Food by Chromatographic Methods Coupled to Mass Spectrometry in Tandem

Exposure Assessment to Mycotoxins in a Portuguese Fresh Bread Dough Company by Using a Multi-Biomarker Approach

H&TRC-Health & Technology Research Center, ESTeSL-Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, 1990-096 Lisboa, Portugal
Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1600-560 Lisboa, Portugal
Food and Nutrition Department, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge, I.P. (INSA), Av. Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisbon, Portugal
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
NOVA National School of Public Health, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1600-560 Lisboa, Portugal
Group of Prof. Humpf, Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster Corrensstraße 45, 48149 Münster, Germany
Department of Physiology and Toxicology, Institute of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Kazimierz Wielki University, 85-064 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure: Emerging Risks to Human Health)
Mycotoxins are toxic mold metabolites that can persist in environment long after the fungi species responsible for their production disappear. Critical workplace for mycotoxins presence has already been studied and nowadays it is possible to recognize that exposure to mycotoxins through inhalation occurs due to their presence in dust. This study aimed to assess occupational co-exposure to multiple mycotoxins in a fresh bread dough company, an occupational setting not studied until now. Occupational exposure assessment to mycotoxins was done using a LC-MS/MS urinary multi-biomarker approach. Twenty-one workers and nineteen individuals that were used as controls participated in the study. Workers/controls (spot-urine) and environment (settled dust) samples were collected and analyzed. Concerning workers group, DON-GlcA, and OTA were the most prevalent biomarkers (>LOD), 66% and 90.5%, respectively. In the control group, OTA was also one of the most detected (68%) followed by CIT (58%) and DON-GlcA (58%). DON was the mycotoxin measured in high amounts in the settled dust sample (58.2 ng/g). Both workers and controls are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously. The workers group, due to their high contact with flour dust, revealed a higher exposure to DON. Considering these results, risk management measures must be applied including specific and adequate health surveillance programs in order to avoid exposure and consequently the associated health consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungi metabolites; biomonitoring; occupational exposure fungi metabolites; biomonitoring; occupational exposure
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Viegas, S.; Assunção, R.; Nunes, C.; Osteresch, B.; Twarużek, M.; Kosicki, R.; Grajewski, J.; Martins, C.; Alvito, P.; Almeida, A.; Viegas, C. Exposure Assessment to Mycotoxins in a Portuguese Fresh Bread Dough Company by Using a Multi-Biomarker Approach. Toxins 2018, 10, 342.

AMA Style

Viegas S, Assunção R, Nunes C, Osteresch B, Twarużek M, Kosicki R, Grajewski J, Martins C, Alvito P, Almeida A, Viegas C. Exposure Assessment to Mycotoxins in a Portuguese Fresh Bread Dough Company by Using a Multi-Biomarker Approach. Toxins. 2018; 10(9):342.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viegas, Susana, Ricardo Assunção, Carla Nunes, Bernd Osteresch, Magdalena Twarużek, Robert Kosicki, Jan Grajewski, Carla Martins, Paula Alvito, Ana Almeida, and Carla Viegas. 2018. "Exposure Assessment to Mycotoxins in a Portuguese Fresh Bread Dough Company by Using a Multi-Biomarker Approach" Toxins 10, no. 9: 342.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop