Fermented foods (FF) are widely consumed around the world, and FF are one of the prime sources of toxins and pathogenic microbes that are associated with several foodborne outbreaks. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, sterigmatocystin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin, and alternariol), bacterial toxins (shiga toxin and botulinum), biogenic amines, and cyanogenic glycosides are the common toxins found in FF in addition to the pathogenic microbes. Fermented milk products and meat sausages are extremely vulnerable to contamination. Cumulative updated information about a specific topic such as toxins in FF is essential for the improvement of safer preparation and consumption of fermented foods. Accordingly, the current manuscript summarizes the reported mycotoxins, bacterial toxins, and/or toxins from other sources; detection methods and prevention of toxins in FF (use of specific starter culture, optimized fermentation process, and pre- and post-processing treatments); and major clinical outbreaks. This literature survey was made in Scopus, Web of Science, NCBI-PubMed, and Google Scholar using the search terms “Toxins” and “Fermented Foods” as keywords. The appropriate scientific documents were screened for relevant information and they were selected without any chronological restrictions.
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