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Article

Investigation of the Metabolic Profile and Toxigenic Variability of Fungal Species Occurring in Fermented Foods and Beverage from Nigeria and South Africa Using UPLC-MS/MS

1
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2092, South Africa
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Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Agriculture, PMB, 2240 Abeokuta, Nigeria
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Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentin Vaerwyckweg 1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Laboratory of Applied Mycology and Phenomics, Department of Plants and Crops, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Department of Botany, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box, Nairobi 30197, Kenya
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Centre of Excellence in Mycotoxicology and Public Health, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Growth and Mycotoxins: Challenges for developing countries)
Fungal species recovered from fermented foods and beverage from Nigeria and South Africa were studied to establish their toxigenic potential in producing an array of secondary metabolites including mycotoxins (n = 49) that could compromise human and animal safety. In total, 385 fungal isolates were grown on solidified yeast extract sucrose agar. Their metabolites were extracted and analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. To examine the grouping of isolates and co-occurrence of metabolites, hierarchal clustering and pairwise association analysis was performed. Of the 385 fungal strains tested, over 41% were toxigenic producing different mycotoxins. A. flavus and A. parasiticus strains were the principal producers of aflatoxin B1 (27–7406 µg/kg). Aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid had a positive association. Ochratoxin A was produced by 67% of the A. niger strains in the range of 28–1302 µg/kg. The sterigmatocystin producers found were A. versicolor (n = 12), A. amstelodami (n = 4), and A. sydowii (n = 6). Apart from P. chrysogenum, none of the Penicillium spp. produced roquefortine C. Amongst the Fusarium strains tested, F. verticillioides produced fumonisin B1 (range: 77–218 µg/kg) meanwhile low levels of deoxynivalenol were observed. The production of multiple metabolites by single fungal species was also evident. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxigenicity; Aspergillus; mycotoxins; metabolites; UPLC-MS/MS; fermented foods toxigenicity; Aspergillus; mycotoxins; metabolites; UPLC-MS/MS; fermented foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adekoya, I.; Njobeh, P.; Obadina, A.; Landschoot, S.; Audenaert, K.; Okoth, S.; De Boevre, M.; De Saeger, S. Investigation of the Metabolic Profile and Toxigenic Variability of Fungal Species Occurring in Fermented Foods and Beverage from Nigeria and South Africa Using UPLC-MS/MS. Toxins 2019, 11, 85. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11020085

AMA Style

Adekoya I, Njobeh P, Obadina A, Landschoot S, Audenaert K, Okoth S, De Boevre M, De Saeger S. Investigation of the Metabolic Profile and Toxigenic Variability of Fungal Species Occurring in Fermented Foods and Beverage from Nigeria and South Africa Using UPLC-MS/MS. Toxins. 2019; 11(2):85. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11020085

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adekoya, Ifeoluwa, Patrick Njobeh, Adewale Obadina, Sofie Landschoot, Kris Audenaert, Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, and Sarah De Saeger. 2019. "Investigation of the Metabolic Profile and Toxigenic Variability of Fungal Species Occurring in Fermented Foods and Beverage from Nigeria and South Africa Using UPLC-MS/MS" Toxins 11, no. 2: 85. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11020085

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