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Article

15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker

1
College of Marine Science and Biological Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao 266042, China
2
Key Laboratory for Biochemical Engineering of Shandong Province, Qingdao 266042, China
3
College of Food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
4
Shandong Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Qingdao 266000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 4 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum) which can produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is often used as a model to study the migration, biotransformation, accumulation, and removal of PSTs. However, the mechanism is still unclear. To provide a new tool for related studies, we tried to label PSTs metabolically with 15N stable isotope to obtain 15N-PSTs instead of original 14N, which could be treated as biomarker on PSTs metabolism. We then cultured the A. minutum AGY-H46 which produces toxins GTX1-4 in f/2 medium of different 15N/P concentrations. The 15N-PSTs’ toxicity and toxin profile were detected. Meanwhile, the 15N labeling abundance and 15N atom number of 15N-PSTs were identified. The 14N of PSTs produced by A. minutum can be successfully replaced by 15N, and the f/2 medium of standard 15N/P concentration was the best choice in terms of the species’ growth, PST profile, 15N labeling result and experiment cost. After many (>15) generations, the 15N abundance in PSTs extract reached 82.36%, and the 15N atom number introduced into GTX1-4 might be 4–6. This paper innovatively provided the initial evidence that 15N isotope application of labeling PSTs in A. minutum is feasible. The 15N-PSTs as biomarker can be applied and provide further information on PSTs metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alexandrium minutum; dinoflagellate; paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); 15N stable isotope labeling; biomarker Alexandrium minutum; dinoflagellate; paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs); 15N stable isotope labeling; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xie, W.; Li, M.; Song, L.; Zhang, R.; Hu, X.; Liang, C.; Yang, X. 15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker. Toxins 2019, 11, 211. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040211

AMA Style

Xie W, Li M, Song L, Zhang R, Hu X, Liang C, Yang X. 15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker. Toxins. 2019; 11(4):211. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xie, Wancui, Min Li, Lin Song, Rui Zhang, Xiaoqun Hu, Chengzhu Liang, and Xihong Yang. 2019. "15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker" Toxins 11, no. 4: 211. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040211

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