Next Article in Journal
Structural Insights to the Heterotetrameric Interaction between the Vibrio parahaemolyticus PirAvp and PirBvp Toxins and Activation of the Cry-Like Pore-Forming Domain
Next Article in Special Issue
Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Toxin Genes in Clinical Isolates of Clostridium perfringens: Coexistence of Alpha-Toxin Variant and Binary Enterotoxin Genes (bec/cpile)
Previous Article in Journal
CesH Represses Cereulide Synthesis as an Alpha/Beta Fold Hydrolase in Bacillus cereus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Application of an Endothelial Cell Culture Assay for the Detection of Neutralizing Anti-Clostridium Perfringens Beta-Toxin Antibodies in a Porcine Vaccination Trial
Article

Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine

1
Laboratory of Molecular Microbiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hiroshima International University, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 17 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
Clostridium perfringens strains B and C cause fatal intestinal diseases in animals. The secreted pore-forming toxin delta-toxin is one of the virulence factors of the strains, but the mechanism of intestinal pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of delta-toxin on the mouse ileal loop. Delta-toxin caused fluid accumulation and intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran in the mouse ileal loop in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with delta-toxin induced significant histological damage and shortening of villi. Delta-toxin activates a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 10, leading to the cleavage of E-cadherin, the epithelial adherens junction protein, in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In this study, E-cadherin immunostaining in mouse intestinal epithelial cells was almost undetectable 1 h after toxin treatment. ADAM10 inhibitor (GI254023X) blocked the toxin-induced fluid accumulation and E-cadherin loss in the mouse ileal loop. Delta-toxin stimulated the shedding of intestinal epithelial cells. The shedding cells showed the accumulation of E-cadherin in intracellular vesicles and the increased expression of active caspase-3. Our findings demonstrate that delta-toxin causes intestinal epithelial cell damage through the loss of E-cadherin cleaved by ADAM10. View Full-Text
Keywords: C. perfringens delta-toxin; fluid accumulation; intestinal damage; E-cadherin C. perfringens delta-toxin; fluid accumulation; intestinal damage; E-cadherin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Seike, S.; Takehara, M.; Kobayashi, K.; Nagahama, M. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine. Toxins 2019, 11, 232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040232

AMA Style

Seike S, Takehara M, Kobayashi K, Nagahama M. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine. Toxins. 2019; 11(4):232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seike, Soshi, Masaya Takehara, Keiko Kobayashi, and Masahiro Nagahama. 2019. "Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine" Toxins 11, no. 4: 232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11040232

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop