Next Article in Journal
Brown Spider (Loxosceles) Venom Toxins as Potential Biotools for the Development of Novel Therapeutics
Next Article in Special Issue
Pore-Forming Proteins from Cnidarians and Arachnids as Potential Biotechnological Tools
Previous Article in Journal
Tissue Accumulations of Toxic Aconitum Alkaloids after Short-Term and Long-Term Oral Administrations of Clinically Used Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparations in Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Binding to The Target Cell Surface Is The Crucial Step in Pore Formation of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus
Review

Membrane Permeabilization by Pore-Forming RTX Toxins: What Kind of Lesions Do These Toxins Form?

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular (UPV/EHU) and Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC), Aptdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pore-Forming Toxins (PFTs): Never Out of Fashion)
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) form nanoscale pores across target membranes causing cell death. The pore-forming cytolysins of the RTX (repeats in toxin) family belong to a steadily increasing family of proteins characterized by having in their primary sequences a number of glycine- and aspartate-rich nonapeptide repeats. They are secreted by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria and form ion-permeable pores in several cell types, such as immune cells, epithelial cells, or erythrocytes. Pore-formation by RTX-toxins leads to the dissipation of ionic gradients and membrane potential across the cytoplasmic membrane of target cells, which results in cell death. The pores formed in lipid bilayers by the RTX-toxins share some common properties such as cation selectivity and voltage-dependence. Hemolytic and cytolytic RTX-toxins are important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of the producing bacteria. And hence, understanding the function of these proteins at the molecular level is critical to elucidating their role in disease processes. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge on pore-formation by RTX toxins, and include recent results from our own laboratory regarding the pore-forming activity of adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA), a large protein toxin secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium causative of whooping cough. View Full-Text
Keywords: pore-forming proteins; Gram-negative bacteria; bacterial protein toxins; RTX toxins; toroidal pores pore-forming proteins; Gram-negative bacteria; bacterial protein toxins; RTX toxins; toroidal pores
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ostolaza, H.; González-Bullón, D.; Uribe, K.B.; Martín, C.; Amuategi, J.; Fernandez-Martínez, X. Membrane Permeabilization by Pore-Forming RTX Toxins: What Kind of Lesions Do These Toxins Form? Toxins 2019, 11, 354. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11060354

AMA Style

Ostolaza H, González-Bullón D, Uribe KB, Martín C, Amuategi J, Fernandez-Martínez X. Membrane Permeabilization by Pore-Forming RTX Toxins: What Kind of Lesions Do These Toxins Form? Toxins. 2019; 11(6):354. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11060354

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ostolaza, Helena, David González-Bullón, Kepa B. Uribe, Cesar Martín, Jone Amuategi, and Xabier Fernandez-Martínez. 2019. "Membrane Permeabilization by Pore-Forming RTX Toxins: What Kind of Lesions Do These Toxins Form?" Toxins 11, no. 6: 354. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11060354

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop