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Article

LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
The occurrence of marine harmful algae is increasing worldwide and, therefore, the accumulation of lipophilic marine toxins from harmful phytoplankton represents a food safety threat in the shellfish industry. Galicia, which is a commercially important EU producer of edible bivalve mollusk have been subjected to recurring cases of mussel farm closures, in the last decades. This work aimed to study the toxic profile of commercial mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in order to establish a potential risk when ingested. For this, a total of 41 samples of mussels farmed in 3 Rías (Ares-Sada, Arousa, and Pontevedra) and purchased in 5 local markets were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Chromatograms showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2), and the emerging toxins 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX-13), and pinnatoxin-G (PnTX-G). Quantification of each toxin was determined using their own standard calibration in the range 0.1%–50 ng/mL (R2 > 0.99) and by considering the toxin recovery (62–110%) and the matrix correction (33–211%). Data showed that OA and DTX-2 (especially in the form of esters) are the main risk in Galician mollusks, which was detected in 38 samples (93%) and 3 of them exceeded the legal limit (160 µg/kg), followed by SPX-13 that was detected in 19 samples (46%) in quantities of up to 28.9 µg/kg. Analysis from PTX-2, AZA-2, and PnTX-G showed smaller amounts. Fifteen samples (37%) were positive for PTX-2 (0.7–2.9 µg/kg), 12 samples (29%) for AZA-2 (0.1–1.8 µg/kg), and PnTX-G was detected in 5 mussel samples (12%) (0.4 µg/kg–0.9 µg/kg). This is the first time Galician mollusk was contaminated with PnTX-G. Despite results indicating that this toxin was not a potential risk through the mussel ingestion, it should be considered in the shellfish safety monitoring programs through the LC–MS/MS methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipophilic marine toxin levels; Galician mussels; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS); new emerging toxins lipophilic marine toxin levels; Galician mussels; liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS); new emerging toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otero, P.; Miguéns, N.; Rodríguez, I.; Botana, L.M. LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels. Toxins 2019, 11, 394. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11070394

AMA Style

Otero P, Miguéns N, Rodríguez I, Botana LM. LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels. Toxins. 2019; 11(7):394. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11070394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otero, Paz, Natalia Miguéns, Inés Rodríguez, and Luis M. Botana 2019. "LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels" Toxins 11, no. 7: 394. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11070394

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