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Article

Accumulation of Microcystin-LR in Grains of Two Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and a Leafy Vegetable, Ipomoea aquatica

Center for Water Quality and Algae Research, Department of Zoology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
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Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
The potential transfer of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) to humans via crop plants irrigated with MC-contaminated water is causing serious concern. In this study, two Oryza sativa variants, a hybrid (BG358), a traditional (Suwandel) variety, and a leafy green vegetable crop, Ipomoea aquatica, were exposed under laboratory conditions to natural blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa sampled from a hypereutrophic lake contaminated with MC-LR (3,197.37 ± 1.04 µg/L). Field samples of O. sativa and I. aquatica were collected from farmlands that had been irrigated from a reservoir, containing MC-LR (180 µg/L). MC-LR was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography followed by photodiode-array detection (HPLC-PDA). From the laboratory study, we calculated the potential human health exposure from BG358, Suwandel and I. aquatica as 2.84 ± 0.01, 0.22 ± 0.01, and 0.06 ± 0.01 µg/kg of body weight/day, respectively, whereas the potential health exposures from BG358, Suwandel and I. aquatica collected from the field were 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.009 ± 0.005, and 0.03 ± 0.01 µg/kg of body weight/day, respectively. In certain instances, the results exceeded the World Health Organization’s (WHO) tolerable daily intake of MC-LR, posing a potential health risk to humans. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of continuous screening programs for cyanotoxins in edible plants in the future to prevent the consumption of contaminated crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; Oryza sativa; Ipomoea aquatica; human health risk; tolerable daily intake microcystins; Oryza sativa; Ipomoea aquatica; human health risk; tolerable daily intake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wijewickrama, M.M.; Manage, P.M. Accumulation of Microcystin-LR in Grains of Two Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and a Leafy Vegetable, Ipomoea aquatica. Toxins 2019, 11, 432. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080432

AMA Style

Wijewickrama MM, Manage PM. Accumulation of Microcystin-LR in Grains of Two Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and a Leafy Vegetable, Ipomoea aquatica. Toxins. 2019; 11(8):432. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wijewickrama, Menuja M., and Pathmalal M. Manage 2019. "Accumulation of Microcystin-LR in Grains of Two Rice Varieties (Oryza sativa L.) and a Leafy Vegetable, Ipomoea aquatica" Toxins 11, no. 8: 432. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080432

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