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Article

Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity

1
Laboratory of Fungal Genetics and Metabolism, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-14220 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
3
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Viničná 7, CZ-128 00 Prague, Czech Republic
4
TEVA Czech Ind, CZ-74770 Opava, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
Ergot, fungal genus Claviceps, are worldwide distributed grass pathogens known for their production of toxic ergot alkaloids (EAs) and the great agricultural impact they have on both cereal crop and farm animal production. EAs are traditionally considered as the only factor responsible for ergot toxicity. Using broad sampling covering 13 ergot species infecting wild or agricultural grasses (including cereals) across Europe, USA, New Zealand, and South Africa we showed that the content of ergochrome pigments were comparable to the content of EAs in sclerotia. While secalonic acids A–C (SAs), the main ergot ergochromes (ECs), are well known toxins, our study is the first to address the question about their contribution to overall ergot toxicity. Based on our and published data, the importance of SAs in acute intoxication seems to be negligible, but the effect of chronic exposure needs to be evaluated. Nevertheless, they have biological activities at doses corresponding to quantities found in natural conditions. Our study highlights the need for a re-evaluation of ergot toxicity mechanisms and further studies of SAs’ impact on livestock production and food safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; ergot alkaloids; ergochromes; secalonic acid; food safety; cereals; tetrahydroxanthones; Claviceps mycotoxins; ergot alkaloids; ergochromes; secalonic acid; food safety; cereals; tetrahydroxanthones; Claviceps
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flieger, M.; Stodůlková, E.; Wyka, S.A.; Černý, J.; Grobárová, V.; Píchová, K.; Novák, P.; Man, P.; Kuzma, M.; Cvak, L.; Broders, K.D.; Kolařík, M. Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity. Toxins 2019, 11, 439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080439

AMA Style

Flieger M, Stodůlková E, Wyka SA, Černý J, Grobárová V, Píchová K, Novák P, Man P, Kuzma M, Cvak L, Broders KD, Kolařík M. Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity. Toxins. 2019; 11(8):439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flieger, Miroslav, Eva Stodůlková, Stephen A. Wyka, Jan Černý, Valéria Grobárová, Kamila Píchová, Petr Novák, Petr Man, Marek Kuzma, Ladislav Cvak, Kirk D. Broders, and Miroslav Kolařík. 2019. "Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity" Toxins 11, no. 8: 439. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11080439

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