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Article

The Effect of Blue Light on the Production of Citrinin in Monascus purpureus M9 by Regulating the mraox Gene through lncRNA AOANCR

1
State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China
2
College of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 6 September 2019 / Published: 13 September 2019
Blue light, as an important environmental factor, can regulate the production of various secondary metabolites of Monascus purpureus M9, including mycotoxin-citrinin, pigments, and monacolin K. The analysis of citrinin in Monascus M9 exposed to blue light for 0 min./d, 15 min./d, and 60 min./d showed that 15 min./d of blue light illumination could significantly increase citrinin production, while 60 min./d of blue light illumination decreased citrinin production. Analysis of long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) was performed on the transcripts of Monascus M9 under three culture conditions, and this analysis identified an lncRNA named AOANCR that can negatively regulate the mraox gene. Fermentation studies suggested that alternate respiratory pathways could be among the pathways that are involved in the regulation of the synthesis of citrinin by environmental factors. Aminophylline and citric acid were added to the culture medium to simulate the process of generating cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells under illumination conditions. The results of the fermentation showed that aminophylline and citric acid could increase the expression of the mraox gene, decrease the expression of lncRNA AOANCR, and reduce the yield of citrinin. This result also indicates a reverse regulation relationship between lncRNA AOANCR and the mraox gene. A blue light signal might regulate the mraox gene at least partially through lncRNA AOANCR, thereby regulating citrinin production. Citrinin has severe nephrotoxicity in mammals, and it is important to control the residual amout of citrinin in red yeast products during fermentation. LncRNA AOANCR and mraox can potentially be used as new targets for the control of citrinin production. View Full-Text
Keywords: Monascus; citrinin; lncRNA; blue light; nephrotoxicity Monascus; citrinin; lncRNA; blue light; nephrotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, H.; Wang, X.; Li, Z.; Guo, Q.; Yang, M.; Chen, D.; Wang, C. The Effect of Blue Light on the Production of Citrinin in Monascus purpureus M9 by Regulating the mraox Gene through lncRNA AOANCR. Toxins 2019, 11, 536. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090536

AMA Style

Yang H, Wang X, Li Z, Guo Q, Yang M, Chen D, Wang C. The Effect of Blue Light on the Production of Citrinin in Monascus purpureus M9 by Regulating the mraox Gene through lncRNA AOANCR. Toxins. 2019; 11(9):536. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090536

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Hua, Xufeng Wang, Zhenjing Li, Qingbin Guo, Mingguan Yang, Di Chen, and Changlu Wang. 2019. "The Effect of Blue Light on the Production of Citrinin in Monascus purpureus M9 by Regulating the mraox Gene through lncRNA AOANCR" Toxins 11, no. 9: 536. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090536

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