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Article

Detection of Cyclic Imine Toxins in Dietary Supplements of Green Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus) and in Shellfish Mytilus chilensis

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 18 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
Seafood represents a significant part of the human staple diet. In the recent years, the identification of emerging lipophilic marine toxins has increased, leading to the potential for consumers to be intoxicated by these toxins. In the present work, we investigate the presence of lipophilic marine toxins (both regulated and emerging) in commercial seafood products from non-European locations, including mussels Mytilus chilensis from Chile, clams Tawerea gayi and Metetrix lyrate from the Southeast Pacific and Vietnam, and food supplements based on mussels formulations of Perna canaliculus from New Zealand. All these products were purchased from European Union markets and they were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Results showed the presence of the emerging pinnatoxin-G in mussels Mytilus chilensis at levels up to 5.2 µg/kg and azaspiracid-2 and pectenotoxin-2 in clams Tawera gayi up to 4.33 µg/kg and 10.88 µg/kg, respectively. This study confirms the presence of pinnatoxins in Chile, one of the major mussel producers worldwide. Chromatograms showed the presence of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in dietary supplements in the range of 33.2–97.9 µg/kg after an extraction with water and methanol from 0.39 g of the green lipped mussels powder. As far as we know, this constitutes the first time that an emerging cyclic imine toxin in dietary supplements is reported. Identifying new matrix, locations, and understanding emerging toxin distribution area are important for preventing the risks of spreading and contamination linked to these compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: 13-desmethyl spirolide C; pinnatoxin-G; dietary supplements; Perna canaliculus; Mytilus Chilensis; UPLC-MS/MS 13-desmethyl spirolide C; pinnatoxin-G; dietary supplements; Perna canaliculus; Mytilus Chilensis; UPLC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otero, P.; Vale, C.; Boente-Juncal, A.; Costas, C.; Louzao, M.C.; Botana, L.M. Detection of Cyclic Imine Toxins in Dietary Supplements of Green Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus) and in Shellfish Mytilus chilensis. Toxins 2020, 12, 613. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100613

AMA Style

Otero P, Vale C, Boente-Juncal A, Costas C, Louzao MC, Botana LM. Detection of Cyclic Imine Toxins in Dietary Supplements of Green Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus) and in Shellfish Mytilus chilensis. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):613. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100613

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otero, Paz, Carmen Vale, Andrea Boente-Juncal, Celia Costas, M. C. Louzao, and Luis M. Botana 2020. "Detection of Cyclic Imine Toxins in Dietary Supplements of Green Lipped Mussels (Perna canaliculus) and in Shellfish Mytilus chilensis" Toxins 12, no. 10: 613. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100613

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