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Review

The Compromised Intestinal Barrier Induced by Mycotoxins

by 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4,* and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
Milk and Milk Products Inspection Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 28 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Single and Combined Mycotoxins)
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that occur in human foods and animal feeds, potentially threatening human and animal health. The intestine is considered as the first barrier against these external contaminants, and it consists of interconnected physical, chemical, immunological, and microbial barriers. In this context, based on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, we summarize the literature for compromised intestinal barrier issues caused by various mycotoxins, and we reviewed events related to disrupted intestinal integrity (physical barrier), thinned mucus layer (chemical barrier), imbalanced inflammatory factors (immunological barrier), and dysfunctional bacterial homeostasis (microbial barrier). We also provide important information on deoxynivalenol, a leading mycotoxin implicated in intestinal dysfunction, and other adverse intestinal effects induced by other mycotoxins, including aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. In addition, intestinal perturbations caused by mycotoxins may also contribute to the development of mycotoxicosis, including human chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we provide a clear understanding of compromised intestinal barrier induced by mycotoxins, with a view to potentially develop innovative strategies to prevent and treat mycotoxicosis. In addition, because of increased combinatorial interactions between mycotoxins, we explore the interactive effects of multiple mycotoxins in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; intestinal barrier; intestinal inflammation; interactive effects mycotoxins; intestinal barrier; intestinal inflammation; interactive effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, Y.; Meng, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N. The Compromised Intestinal Barrier Induced by Mycotoxins. Toxins 2020, 12, 619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100619

AMA Style

Gao Y, Meng L, Liu H, Wang J, Zheng N. The Compromised Intestinal Barrier Induced by Mycotoxins. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Yanan; Meng, Lu; Liu, Huimin; Wang, Jiaqi; Zheng, Nan. 2020. "The Compromised Intestinal Barrier Induced by Mycotoxins" Toxins 12, no. 10: 619. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100619

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