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Review

Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications

1
Brain Chemistry Labs, Jackson, WY 83001, USA
2
School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
3
Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 15 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
Toxin-producing cyanobacteria in aquatic, terrestrial, and aerial environments can occur alongside a wide range of additional health hazards including biological agents and synthetic materials. Cases of intoxications involving cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, with exposure to additional hazards, are discussed. Examples of the co-occurrence of cyanobacteria in such combinations are reviewed, including cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins plus algal toxins, microbial pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, metals, pesticides, and microplastics. Toxicity assessments of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and these additional agents, where investigated in bioassays and in defined combinations, are discussed and further research needs are identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; co-occurrence; toxicity; plastics; metals; biocide cyanobacteria; co-occurrence; toxicity; plastics; metals; biocide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Metcalf, J.S.; Codd, G.A. Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications. Toxins 2020, 12, 629. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100629

AMA Style

Metcalf JS, Codd GA. Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):629. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100629

Chicago/Turabian Style

Metcalf, James S., and Geoffrey A. Codd 2020. "Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications" Toxins 12, no. 10: 629. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100629

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