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Article

The Insecticidal Activity of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Paratoid Secretion in Nauphoeta cinerea Cocroaches

1
Laboratório de Neurobiologia e Toxinologia, LANETOX, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus São Gabriel, São Gabriel RS 97307-020, Brazil
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica (PPGBTox), Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Avenida Roraima 1000, Santa Maria RS 97105-900, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Biotecnologia de Produtos Naturais e Sintéticos, Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, Caxias do Sul RS 95070-560, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Venoms and Their Components: Molecular Mechanisms of Action)
Rhinella schneideri is a common toad found in South America, whose paratoid toxic secretion has never been explored as an insecticide. In order to evaluate its insecticidal potential, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches were used as an experimental model in biochemical, physiological and behavioral procedures. Lethality assays with Rhinella schneideri paratoid secretion (RSPS) determined the LD50 value after 24 h (58.07µg/g) and 48 h exposure (44.07 µg/g) (R2 = 0.882 and 0.954, respectively). Acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) after RSPS at its highest dose promoted an enzyme inhibition of 40%, a similar effect observed with neostigmine administration (p < 0.001, n= 5). Insect locomotion recordings revealed that RSPS decreased the distance traveled by up to 37% with a concomitant 85% increase in immobile episodes (p < 0.001, n = 36). RSPS added to in vivo cockroach semi-isolated heart preparation promoted an irreversible and dose dependent decrease in heart rate, showing a complete failure after 30 min recording (p < 0.001, n ≥ 6). In addition, RSPS into nerve-muscle preparations induced a dose-dependent neuromuscular blockade, reaching a total blockage at 70 min at the highest dose applied (p < 0.001, n ≥ 6). The effect of RSPS on spontaneous sensorial action potentials was characterized by an increase in the number of spikes 61% (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, there was 42% decrease in the mean area of those potentials (p < 0.05, n ≥ 6). The results obtained here highlight the potential insecticidal relevance of RSPS and its potential biotechnological application. View Full-Text
Keywords: toad parotid secretion; natural insecticide; insect behavioral deficits; AChE inhibition; neuromuscular blockade toad parotid secretion; natural insecticide; insect behavioral deficits; AChE inhibition; neuromuscular blockade
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leal, A.; Karnopp, E.; Barreto, Y.C.; Oliveira, R.S.; Rosa, M.E.; Borges, B.T.; Goulart, F.L.; Souza, V.Q.d.; Laikowski, M.M.; Moura, S.; Vinadé, L.; Rocha, J.B.T.d.; Dal Belo, C.A. The Insecticidal Activity of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Paratoid Secretion in Nauphoeta cinerea Cocroaches. Toxins 2020, 12, 630. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100630

AMA Style

Leal A, Karnopp E, Barreto YC, Oliveira RS, Rosa ME, Borges BT, Goulart FL, Souza VQd, Laikowski MM, Moura S, Vinadé L, Rocha JBTd, Dal Belo CA. The Insecticidal Activity of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Paratoid Secretion in Nauphoeta cinerea Cocroaches. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):630. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100630

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leal, Allan, Etiely Karnopp, Yuri C. Barreto, Raquel S. Oliveira, Maria E. Rosa, Bruna T. Borges, Flávia L. Goulart, Velci Q.d. Souza, Manuela M. Laikowski, Sidnei Moura, Lúcia Vinadé, João B.T.d. Rocha, and Cháriston A. Dal Belo 2020. "The Insecticidal Activity of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Paratoid Secretion in Nauphoeta cinerea Cocroaches" Toxins 12, no. 10: 630. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100630

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