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[D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR: A Small–Large Difference: Significantly Different Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) Growth and Phototropic Response after Single Contact during Imbibition with Each of These Microcystin Variants
Article

[D-Leu1]MC-LR Has Lower PP1 Inhibitory Capability and Greater Toxic Potency than MC-LR in Animal and Plant Tissues

1
Center for Environmental Research (CIM), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Argentina
2
Area of Toxicology, School of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Argentina
3
Pathology B Cathedra, School of Medical Sciences, National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Argentina
4
Research Center in Food Cryotechnology (CIDCA), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), La Plata 1900, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 1 October 2020
Two microcystins, MC-LR and [D-Leu1]MC-LR, present in La Plata Basin blooms, are differentiated by substitution of D-Alanine for D-Leucine at position 1. Our objective was to evaluate acute toxicity of [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR in mice (N:NIH Swiss) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). We observed variations in [D-Leu1]MC-LR lethal doses with respect to those reported for MC-LR (100 μg/kg), with an increased liver/body weight ratio and intrahepatic hemorrhages in mice exposed to 50–200 μg [D-Leu1]MC-LR/kg and slight steatosis after a single 25 μg [D-Leu1]MC-LR/kg i.p. dose. Our study in the plant model showed alterations in germination, development, morphology and TBARs levels after a single contact with the toxins during imbibition (3.5 and 15 µg/mL), those treated with [D-Leu1]MC-LR being more affected than those treated with the same concentration of MC-LR. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) IC50 values were 40.6 nM and 5.3 nM for [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR, respectively. However, the total phosphatase activity test in root homogenate showed 60% inhibition for [D-Leu1]MC-LR and 12% for MC-LR. In mouse liver homogenate, 50% inhibition was observed for [D-Leu1]MC-LR and 40% for MC-LR. Our findings indicate the need for further research into [D-Leu1]MC-LR toxicity since together with oxidative stress, the possible inhibition of other phosphatases could explain the differences detected in the potency of the two toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: [D-Leu1]Microcystin-LR; Microcystin-LR; toxic potency; phosphatase inhibition; Phaseolus vulgaris; mice [D-Leu1]Microcystin-LR; Microcystin-LR; toxic potency; phosphatase inhibition; Phaseolus vulgaris; mice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sedan, D.; Malaissi, L.; Vaccarini, C.A.; Ventosi, E.; Laguens, M.; Rosso, L.; Giannuzzi, L.; Andrinolo, D. [D-Leu1]MC-LR Has Lower PP1 Inhibitory Capability and Greater Toxic Potency than MC-LR in Animal and Plant Tissues. Toxins 2020, 12, 632. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100632

AMA Style

Sedan D, Malaissi L, Vaccarini CA, Ventosi E, Laguens M, Rosso L, Giannuzzi L, Andrinolo D. [D-Leu1]MC-LR Has Lower PP1 Inhibitory Capability and Greater Toxic Potency than MC-LR in Animal and Plant Tissues. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):632. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100632

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sedan, Daniela, Luciano Malaissi, Cristian A. Vaccarini, Ezequiel Ventosi, Martín Laguens, Lorena Rosso, Leda Giannuzzi, and Darío Andrinolo. 2020. "[D-Leu1]MC-LR Has Lower PP1 Inhibitory Capability and Greater Toxic Potency than MC-LR in Animal and Plant Tissues" Toxins 12, no. 10: 632. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100632

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