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Article

Transcriptomic Insights into the Antifungal Effects of Magnolol on the Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Alternaria alternata

1
Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China
2
Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-Products (Beijing), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China
3
Beijing Vegetable Research Center, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 18 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detection and Prevention Technologies for Toxins)
Alternaria alternata is an important phytopathogen causing fruit black rot and also producing a variety of mycotoxins, such as alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) as two main contaminants. This could lead to economic losses of agricultural products as well as human health risks. In this study, magnolol extracted from the traditional Chinese herb, Mangnolia officinalis, exhibited an obvious antifungal property and could completely suppress the mycelial growth at 100 μM. Morphological differences of A. alternata were observed to be significantly shrunk and wrinkled after the exposure to magnolol. Furthermore, AOH and AME were no longer produced in response to 50 μM of magnolol. To uncover the antifungal and antimycotoxigenic mechanisms, the transcriptomic profiles of A. alternata—treated with or without magnolol—were evaluated. The clustered genes responsible for AOH and AME biosynthesis were obviously less transcribed under magnolol stress and this was further confirmed by qRT-PCR. The global regulators of carbon and nitrogen utilization, such as CreA and NmrA, were significantly down-regulated and this possibly caused the reduction in mycotoxins. In addition, fatty acid β-oxidation was regarded to contribute to polyketide mycotoxin production for the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA while the expression of these related genes was inhibited. The response to magnolol led to the marked alteration of oxidative stress and the down-expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway from the transcriptome data and the determination of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) assays. This above might be the very reason for the growth supression and mycotoxin production of A. alternata by magnolol. This study provides new insights into its potential as an important active ingredient for the control of A. alternata and its mycotoxins in fruits and their products. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alternaria alternata; mycotoxin; alternariol; magnolol; transcriptome Alternaria alternata; mycotoxin; alternariol; magnolol; transcriptome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Wang, D.; Yuan, S.; Feng, X.; Wang, M. Transcriptomic Insights into the Antifungal Effects of Magnolol on the Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Alternaria alternata. Toxins 2020, 12, 665. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100665

AMA Style

Wang L, Wang D, Yuan S, Feng X, Wang M. Transcriptomic Insights into the Antifungal Effects of Magnolol on the Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Alternaria alternata. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):665. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100665

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Liuqing, Duo Wang, Shuzhi Yuan, Xiaoyuan Feng, and Meng Wang. 2020. "Transcriptomic Insights into the Antifungal Effects of Magnolol on the Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Alternaria alternata" Toxins 12, no. 10: 665. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12100665

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