Next Article in Journal
Gastric Ulceration and Immune Suppression in Weaned Piglets Associated with Feed-Borne Bacillus cereus and Aspergillus fumigatus
Next Article in Special Issue
BmK NSPK, a Potent Potassium Channel Inhibitor from Scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch, Promotes Neurite Outgrowth via NGF/TrkA Signaling Pathway
Previous Article in Journal
The Bacillus cereus Food Infection as Multifactorial Process
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Insecticidal Activity of Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Paratoid Secretion in Nauphoeta cinerea Cocroaches
Article

Toxicological Characterization and Phospholipase D Activity of the Venom of the Spider Sicarius thomisoides

1
Laboratorio de Parasitología Molecular, Departamento de Tecnología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile
2
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique 1110939, Chile
3
Centro de Investigación en Medio Ambiente (CENIMA), Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique 1110939, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 26 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 October 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Venoms and Their Components: Molecular Mechanisms of Action)
Envenomation by Loxosceles spiders (Sicariidae family) has been thoroughly documented. However, little is known about the potential toxicity of members from the Sicarius genus. Only the venom of the Brazilian Sicarius ornatus spider has been toxicologically characterized. In Chile, the Sicarius thomisoides species is widely distributed in desert and semidesert environments, and it is not considered a dangerous spider for humans. This study aimed to characterize the potential toxicity of the Chilean S. thomisoides spider. To do so, specimens of S. thomisoides were captured in the Atacama Desert, the venom was extracted, and the protein concentration was determined. Additionally, the venoms were analyzed by electrophoresis and Western blotting using anti-recombinant L. laeta PLD1 serum. Phospholipase D enzymatic activity was assessed, and the hemolytic and cytotoxic effects were evaluated and compared with those of the L. laeta venom. The S. thomisoides venom was able to hydrolyze sphingomyelin as well as induce complement-dependent hemolysis and the loss of viability of skin fibroblasts with a dermonecrotic effect of the venom in rabbits. The venom of S. thomisoides showed intraspecific variations, with a similar protein pattern as that of L. laeta venom at 32–35 kDa, recognized by serum anti-LlPLD1. In this context, we can conclude that the venom of Sicarius thomisoides is similar to Loxosceles laeta in many aspects, and the dermonecrotic toxin present in their venom could cause severe harm to humans; thus, precautions are necessary to avoid exposure to their bite. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sicarius thomisoides; phospholipase D; venom toxicity Sicarius thomisoides; phospholipase D; venom toxicity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Arán-Sekul, T.; Perčić-Sarmiento, I.; Valencia, V.; Olivero, N.; Rojas, J.M.; Araya, J.E.; Taucare-Ríos, A.; Catalán, A. Toxicological Characterization and Phospholipase D Activity of the Venom of the Spider Sicarius thomisoides. Toxins 2020, 12, 702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110702

AMA Style

Arán-Sekul T, Perčić-Sarmiento I, Valencia V, Olivero N, Rojas JM, Araya JE, Taucare-Ríos A, Catalán A. Toxicological Characterization and Phospholipase D Activity of the Venom of the Spider Sicarius thomisoides. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110702

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arán-Sekul, Tomás, Ivanka Perčić-Sarmiento, Verónica Valencia, Nelly Olivero, José M. Rojas, Jorge E. Araya, Andrés Taucare-Ríos, and Alejandro Catalán. 2020. "Toxicological Characterization and Phospholipase D Activity of the Venom of the Spider Sicarius thomisoides" Toxins 12, no. 11: 702. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110702

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop