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Article

Chitosan as a Coagulant to Remove Cyanobacteria Can Cause Microcystin Release

1
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 5 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 10 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
Chitosan has been tested as a coagulant to remove cyanobacterial nuisance. While its coagulation efficiency is well studied, little is known about its effect on the viability of the cyanobacterial cells. This study aimed to test eight strains of the most frequent bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, exposed to a realistic concentration range of chitosan used in lake restoration management (0 to 8 mg chitosan L−1). We found that after 1 h of contact with chitosan, in seven of the eight strains tested, photosystem II efficiency was decreased, and after 24 h, all the strains tested were affected. EC50 values varied from 0.47 to > 8 mg chitosan L-1 between the strains, which might be related to the amount of extracellular polymeric substances. Nucleic acid staining (Sytox-Green®) illustrated the loss of membrane integrity in all the strains tested, and subsequent leakage of pigments was observed, as well as the release of intracellular microcystin. Our results indicate that strain variability hampers generalization about species response to chitosan exposure. Hence, when used as a coagulant to manage cyanobacterial nuisance, chitosan should be first tested on the natural site-specific biota on cyanobacteria removal efficiency, as well as on cell integrity aspects. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake restoration; cyanobacteria bloom control; membrane integrity; Microcystis aeruginosa; microcystin lake restoration; cyanobacteria bloom control; membrane integrity; Microcystis aeruginosa; microcystin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mucci, M.; Guedes, I.A.; Faassen, E.J.; Lürling, M. Chitosan as a Coagulant to Remove Cyanobacteria Can Cause Microcystin Release. Toxins 2020, 12, 711. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110711

AMA Style

Mucci M, Guedes IA, Faassen EJ, Lürling M. Chitosan as a Coagulant to Remove Cyanobacteria Can Cause Microcystin Release. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):711. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110711

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mucci, Maíra, Iame A. Guedes, Elisabeth J. Faassen, and Miquel Lürling. 2020. "Chitosan as a Coagulant to Remove Cyanobacteria Can Cause Microcystin Release" Toxins 12, no. 11: 711. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12110711

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