This review, covering the literature from 1966 to the present (2020), describes naturally occurring fungal bioactive anthraquinones and analogues biosynthesized by the acetate route and concerning several different functionalized carbon skeletons. Hydrocarbons, lipids, sterols, esters, fatty acids, derivatives of amino acids, and aromatic compounds are metabolites belonging to other different classes of natural compounds and are generated by the same biosynthetic route. All of them are produced by plant, microorganisms, and marine organisms. The biological activities of anthraquinones and analogues comprise phytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, antitumor, algicide, antifungal, enzyme inhibiting, immunostimulant, antiplatelet aggregation, cytotoxic, and antiplasmodium activities. The review also covers some practical industrial applications of anthraquinones.
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