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Article

Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya

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Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi. P.O. Box 29053, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Department of Animal Science, Chuka University, P.O. Box 109-00625, Chuka 00625, Kenya
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Department of Pharmacology Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
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Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, Avenue de Cureghem 10, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
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School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Independent Researcher, P.O. Box 34405, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
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International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
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Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, SE-751 05 Uppsala, Sweden
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Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship.
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 24 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 3 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Mycotoxins are common in grains in sub-Saharan Africa and negatively impact human and animal health and production. This study assessed occurrences of mycotoxins, some plant, and bacterial metabolites in 16 dairy and 27 poultry feeds, and 24 feed ingredients from Machakos town, Kenya, in February and August 2019. We analyzed the samples using a validated multi-toxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 153 mycotoxins, plant, and bacterial toxins, were detected in the samples. All the samples were co-contaminated with 21 to 116 different mycotoxins and/or metabolites. The commonly occurring and EU regulated mycotoxins reported were; aflatoxins (AFs) (70%; range 0.2–318.5 μg/kg), deoxynivalenol (82%; range 22.2–1037 μg/kg), ergot alkaloids (70%; range 0.4–285.7 μg/kg), fumonisins (90%; range 32.4–14,346 μg/kg), HT-2 toxin (3%; range 11.9–13.8 μg/kg), ochratoxin A (24%; range 1.1–24.3 μg/kg), T-2 toxin (4%; range 2.7–5.2 μg/kg) and zearalenone (94%; range 0.3–910.4 μg/kg). Other unregulated emerging mycotoxins and metabolites including Alternaria toxins, Aspergillus toxins, bacterial metabolites, cytochalasins, depsipeptides, Fusarium metabolites, metabolites from other fungi, Penicillium toxins, phytoestrogens, plant metabolites, and unspecific metabolites were also detected at varying levels. Except for total AFs, where the average contamination level was above the EU regulatory limit, all the other mycotoxins detected had average contamination levels below the limits. Ninety-six percent of all the samples were contaminated with more than one of the EU regulated mycotoxins. These co-occurrences may cause synergistic and additive health effects thereby hindering the growth of the Kenyan livestock sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; ergot alkaloids; feed safety; food safety; mycotoxins; sub-Saharan Africa aflatoxins; ergot alkaloids; feed safety; food safety; mycotoxins; sub-Saharan Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kemboi, D.C.; Ochieng, P.E.; Antonissen, G.; Croubels, S.; Scippo, M.-L.; Okoth, S.; Kangethe, E.K.; Faas, J.; Doupovec, B.; Lindahl, J.F.; Gathumbi, J.K. Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya. Toxins 2020, 12, 762. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120762

AMA Style

Kemboi DC, Ochieng PE, Antonissen G, Croubels S, Scippo M-L, Okoth S, Kangethe EK, Faas J, Doupovec B, Lindahl JF, Gathumbi JK. Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya. Toxins. 2020; 12(12):762. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120762

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kemboi, David C.; Ochieng, Phillis E.; Antonissen, Gunther; Croubels, Siska; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Okoth, Sheila; Kangethe, Erastus K.; Faas, Johannes; Doupovec, Barbara; Lindahl, Johanna F.; Gathumbi, James K. 2020. "Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle and Poultry Feeds and Feed Ingredients from Machakos Town, Kenya" Toxins 12, no. 12: 762. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120762

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