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Review

A Review on Mycotoxins and Microfungi in Spices in the Light of the Last Five Years

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, CZ-50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
2
Center for Health, Nutrition and Food in Brno, National Institute of Public Health in Prague, Palackeho 3a, CZ-61242 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Public Law, Institute of State and Law, Czech Academy of Sciences, Narodni 18, CZ-11600 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 11 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exposure to Mycotoxins via Food Chain)
Spices are imported worldwide mainly from developing countries with tropical and/or subtropical climate. Local conditions, such as high temperature, heavy rainfall, and humidity, promote fungal growth leading to increased occurrence of mycotoxins in spices. Moreover, the lack of good agricultural practice (GAP), good manufacturing practice (GMP), and good hygienic practice (GHP) in developing countries are of great concern. This review summarizes recent data from a total of 56 original papers dealing with mycotoxins and microfungi in various spices in the last five years. A total of 38 kinds of spices, 17 mycotoxins, and 14 microfungi are discussed in the review. Worldwide, spices are rather overlooked in terms of mycotoxin regulations, which usually only cover aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA). In this paper, an extensive attention is devoted to the limits on mycotoxins in spices in the context of the European Union (EU) as well as other countries. As proven in this review, the incidence of AFs and OTA, as well as other mycotoxins, is relatively high in many spices; thus, the preparation of new regulation limits is advisable. View Full-Text
Keywords: spices; contamination; microfungi; mycotoxin spices; contamination; microfungi; mycotoxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pickova, D.; Ostry, V.; Malir, J.; Toman, J.; Malir, F. A Review on Mycotoxins and Microfungi in Spices in the Light of the Last Five Years. Toxins 2020, 12, 789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120789

AMA Style

Pickova D, Ostry V, Malir J, Toman J, Malir F. A Review on Mycotoxins and Microfungi in Spices in the Light of the Last Five Years. Toxins. 2020; 12(12):789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pickova, Darina; Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Jan; Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek. 2020. "A Review on Mycotoxins and Microfungi in Spices in the Light of the Last Five Years" Toxins 12, no. 12: 789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120789

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