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Review

Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease and Uremic Toxins on Extracellular Vesicle Biology

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MP3CV-UR7517, CURS-Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Avenue de la Croix Jourdain, F-80054 Amiens, France
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Laboratoire de Biochimie CHU Amiens-Picardie, Avenue de la Croix Jourdain, F-80054 Amiens, France
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INSERM UMR1043, CNRS UMR5282, University of Toulouse III, F-31024 Toulouse, France
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CHU PURPAN—Institut Fédératif de Biologie, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Avenue de Grande Bretagne, F-31059 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 2 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
Vascular calcification (VC) is a cardiovascular complication associated with a high mortality rate, especially in patients with diabetes, atherosclerosis or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD patients, VC is associated with the accumulation of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulphate or inorganic phosphate, which can have a major impact in vascular remodeling. During VC, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo an osteogenic switch and secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are heterogeneous in terms of their origin and composition. Under physiological conditions, EVs are involved in cell-cell communication and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They contain high levels of calcification inhibitors, such as fetuin-A and matrix Gla protein. Under pathological conditions (and particularly in the presence of uremic toxins), the secreted EVs acquire a pro-calcifying profile and thereby act as nucleating foci for the crystallization of hydroxyapatite and the propagation of calcification. Here, we review the most recent findings on the EVs’ pathophysiological role in VC, the impact of uremic toxins on EV biogenesis and functions, the use of EVs as diagnostic biomarkers and the EVs’ therapeutic potential in CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; chronic kidney disease; vascular calcification; uremic toxins extracellular vesicles; chronic kidney disease; vascular calcification; uremic toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yaker, L.; Kamel, S.; Ausseil, J.; Boullier, A. Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease and Uremic Toxins on Extracellular Vesicle Biology. Toxins 2020, 12, 811. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120811

AMA Style

Yaker L, Kamel S, Ausseil J, Boullier A. Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease and Uremic Toxins on Extracellular Vesicle Biology. Toxins. 2020; 12(12):811. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120811

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yaker, Linda, Saïd Kamel, Jérôme Ausseil, and Agnès Boullier. 2020. "Effects of Chronic Kidney Disease and Uremic Toxins on Extracellular Vesicle Biology" Toxins 12, no. 12: 811. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12120811

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